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Over By signing up, you agree to receive J. Pepper email newsletters, offers, promotions, and other commercial messages. The following year, the English translation of Bucaniers of America came out, organized by the writer and pirate Alexandre Olivier Exquemelin, probably of French origin. It was published in three parts in ; the fourth part was added in , with a text based on the report from Ringrose, but with modifications and cuts. The highlights of these reports are some interesting moments when the attention of the authors turns to the geographic information about South America, which the pirates had and began to disclose after they sailed in the Pacific coast.
In the preface of the work organized and published in , Philip Ayres explains that the exploratory activities of Captain Sharp on the South Sea were carried out in the service of the "Emperor of Darien".
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He considers defining and describing the domains of this kinglet very useful to the reader, emphasizing that this information was omitted by the author in his text. The story begins in April , with the topic of the thirst for gold justifying actions and giving courage to men: "What often drives men to undertake the most difficult adventures is the sacred hunger for gold; and gold was the bait that tempted a bunch of excited guys like us", about men, "all Soldiers of Fortune", at the service of the mentioned Emperor of Darien, with whom they made a deal to help him recover territories taken by the Spaniards.
The geographical information about their location associates the political situation with specifically geographical data: the region is between "the two ancient empires of Mexico and Peru, and makes the junction of North and South America". The capital of this empire of Darien is not too distant from Porto Belo, where the Spaniards took their "treasure" from the Ciudad de los Reyes , or Lima, and boarded in galleons bound for Spain.
After two weeks of traveling by land or in canoes, led by "our Emperor", the group arrived in Santa Maria, where they attacked the fort hoping to find the load of gold dust. The expedition intended to stop there, once they had news that there was sufficient gold "to enrich us all". The Spaniards, however, had taken the gold two days before. On Saturday, April 17 th , the author, assessing the reaction of the pirates to the frustration of knowing that there was no more gold for loot, wrote: "Disappointment is an incentive for Revenge, and good Resolution the commander of Success".
They decided to go to Arica, the port at which silver was transported coming from the countryside. Like many other Europeans of different origins, the English pirates possibly knew the fame of Potosi. In England, the expression "as rich as Potosi" 40 was spreading, which shows the fame of the Spanish mines of Peru.
According to the report published by Philip Ayres:. This Arica is seated in a very pleasant Vally by a River side, and is the Barkador of place for Shipping off the Treasure which comes from the Mines of the Mountain of Potosy , is a good Harbour, and secure, and lies in eighteen deg. South latitude, and a Healthy Air. As described in Bucaniers of America , "A certain old man, who had long time sailed among the Spaniards, told us, he could carry us to a place called Arica. Unto which town, he said, all the Plate was brought down from Potosi , Chuquiasaca , and several other places within the Land, where it was digged out of the Mountains and Mines".
Here is a road to Potosy and to Punio, where are rich mines". The first map of the Hack Atlas, which includes copies of maps taken from the Spanish ship, shows the western coast of the continent and the representation of the mountain of Potosi very similar to the image used by the Portuguese cartographers.
Either the corsair crew of Bartholomew Sharp had access to copies of the Portuguese cartography or this circulation preceded the capture of the ship by the pirates and the seized maps themselves would have an influence of Portuguese cartography. These different forms of representation allowed us to come to several conclusions. The analysis of the cartography makes it possible to identify the oscillating understanding that Europeans had on the New World.
The set of mentioned maps does not include the production of the 18 th century, but we know that it was during this century, largely driven by the discovery of gold in the central regions of Brazil and by the border disputes between Spain and Portugal, that the knowledge about the interior of the continent expanded. Likewise, in the 16 th and 17 th centuries, the search for metals had encouraged the exploratory activities and with them the geographical descriptions contained in maps and cosmographies.
This understanding does not mean a linear process toward precision and accuracy, but that there are ambivalences and the coexistence of different representations of the space. The use of different nomenclatures for the continent and the ocean that surrounds it followed various orders of interests and, as we discussed in this article, a variable set of projected expectations, from both the Iberian countries directly involved in the conquest and the pirates and humanists lured by the challenge to "map" a new continent.
The stories that were produced and diffused about Peru and its riches guided the hierarchy of spaces of South America, following the exploration opportunities and initiatives, whether successful or not.
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These conclusions can be associated with those obtained by recent historiography: that the image of America as a single geographic entity, which could also have been built under the name Peruana , was the result of an "active mental construction" in the words of Zerubavel. Accessed on: May 14, Roa-de-la-Carrera, Histories of Infamy. XXXII, p. Henrique, , vol. Tiele, E. Dahlgren, and P. Teleki had shown that Plancius used a work of Lasso to create his Planisphere. When requesting the privilege to publish the world map of Plancius from , Cornelis Claesz also asked for the privilege "to draw or print the 25 special charts obtained from Bartholomeo Lasso, cosmographer and practitioner of navigation of the king of Spain, through the good offices of Mr.
Petrus Plancius, but paid by himself". XXXII, , p.
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And the anonymous author added: "Peru is the most important part of South America, which gets the name of Peruvian" p. VI - Delle Generazione de' Metalli, e sue cause. Carta mensajera de los reyes al Alirante , 15 de Septiembre de Modern edition: Idem, Historia natural y moral de las Indias. See also Frank Lestringant, O canibal. Giacomo Gastaldi was one of the most important cartographers of the period, and he was decisive even for the work of Forlani. Olschki Editore, , p. Las ciudades y las ideas, 2. See also Eviatar Zerubavel, Terra Cognita.
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Ano , London, . Dankerts , Amsterdam. Providence, Brown University Press, , 3v. Libro II, Cap. The map was reproduced in PMC, vol. In this book, the author discusses different manifestations of the influence of the mines of Peru on the Portuguese and Spanish people in the chapter "A different Peru". The term "wagoner" is an English corruption of the name of Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer, a Dutch cartographer who, in , published the first marine atlas with maps and navigation directions. Such books were known in England by the generic term "waggoner", until the 18 th century.
See Derek Howse; Norman J. Thrower eds. Sharp and others , in the South Sea: being a journal of the same. Also Capt.
Van Horn with his Buccanieres surprizing of la Vera Cruz. Published by Philip Ayres Esq. The Second Volume.
From the Original Journal of the said Voyage. Written by Mr. Basil Ringrose, Gent. Cowley's Voyage round the Globe. Wood's voyages thro' the Streights of Magellan. Roberts's Adventures among the Corsairs of the Levant. Sharp and others, in the South Sea : being a journal of the same. Sharp and others, op cit. This work has, for the first time, the edition of the waggoner from Ringrose and it also reproduces the text that is in the edition of Exquemelin, Bucaniers of America. Potosi is miles, or kilometers, by road of Arica in the coast, and it can be reached by the Puno's path in the western margin of Titicaca Lake.
Derek Howse; Norman J. The work contains a reproduction of the map of the coast that belongs to the manuscript of the National Maritime Museum, in London. All Rights Reserved. My first book was published in Reflections Poems. Start your free 30 days. Page 1 of 1. Close Dialog Are you sure? Also remove everything in this list from your library. Are you sure you want to delete this list?
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