Numerous mythological accounts from before the time of Christmost famously, the biblical tale of Noah—refer to great floods which wiped out entire civilizations. The ancients feared this would happen again. They thought if the human race were annihilated, it would likely have a watery grave.
Universal deluge was feared because floods represented a relatively common type of disaster. Many early peoples, familiar with the ravaging impact of water, could readily picture the horrors of a. They could quite vividly imagine the nightmare of buckets and buckets of rain pouring down upon the Earth relentlessly, flooding streams and rivers, valleys and plains. Considering the damage that an ordinary deluge could do, they dreaded the destructive force of a universal flood. The ruination of agriculture, the inundation of towns and cities, and ultimately the.
Legend of Atlantis Aside from the tale of Noah, perhaps the most famous flood story in antiquity is the legend of Atlantis, The Atlantis chronicles first appeared in Plato's Timaeus. Plato spoke of a vast island, "larger than Libya and Asia together" meaning northeast Africa and Asia Minor, respectively , that flourished more than eleven thousand years ago, and later sunk beneath the Atlantic Ocean, Scholars are divided as to whether or not Plato's account refers to an actual place.
Even the ancient Greeks debated its veracity. Aristotle, a student of Plato, considered the tale to be purely allegorical. On the other hand, Crantor, a scholar who edited Timaeus, claimed that it was the absolute truth. In the centuries since the death of Plato B. Some writers have alleged there really was a vast island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, from which European, African, Middle Eastern, and Native American cultures all stem.
In Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, a highly influential work published in , American novelist Ignatius Donelly described Atlantis as a highly advanced civilization where early humankind flourished in a veritable paradise. However, years of diving expeditions and other maritime searches have yielded no evidence of such a land's existence. Most of Plato's histories are known for their impeccable accuracy. Therefore it is surprising to scholars that he would write a fictional treatise and assert it to be the truth.
Nevertheless, based upon all available evidence, we must consider his account to be a mere fable. Regardless of its veracity, Plato's tale is an outstanding epic of an exalted civilization faced with extinction by deluge. In this manner, it stands as a warning to advanced societies of the possibility of sudden destruction. With the example of Atlantis in mind, no cul-. According to Plato, Atlantis was destroyed in the height of its power.
Before its devastation, he wrote, it ruled large parts of Europe and Africa. Its martial arts were exemplary, and its warriors powerful. Supposedly, its remarkable leaders were literally descended from the gods. Because of the island society's considerable might, it aspired to rule the world from its base in the Atlantic. However, its plans were thwarted by sudden catastrophe.
Zeus, the Greek "god of gods," decided that the Atlanteans were becoming too haughty and self-righteous, and wanted to teach them a lesson. He sent earthquake shocks and floods, until the island nation became submerged. Plato's account is quite vivid in its description of the end of Atlantis: There occurred portentous earthquakes and floods, and one grievous day and night befell them, when the whole body of [Greek] warriors was swallowed up by the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner was swallowed up by the sea and vanished; wherefore also the ocean at that spot has now become impassable and unsearchable, being blocked up by the shoal mud which the island created as it settled down.
Rather, he argues that the human race has been challenged time and time again by natural disasters such as floods and plagues. The Atlantis episode, he suggests, is just one link in a long chain of golden ages and cataclysms. After each success for humankind, it is only a matter of time, he feels, before the next calamity will strike. Gilgamesh and Noah's Ark A common feature of flood myths is the idea of a society being punished by God or the gods for its excesses. This is certainly true. The Atlanteans were struck down by Zeus for what we would call an "attitude problem.
He decides to wipe out all of humankind, sparing only Noah—a just man—and his family. Noah is instructed to build a boat, in which his household, and representatives of all types of animals, are to take shelter from a global deluge. After Noah and his family retreat to their ark, a flood ensues for forty days and forty nights. The earth is covered with water until the flood subsides. Finally, the world becomes dryer and Noah and his family can leave the ark. God asks Noah to repopulate the earth, and to obey his laws. In return he promises Noah and his heirs never to destroy the world by flood again.
In the chronicle of Noah, once again we see the theme of God destroying a civilization in order to punish its shortcomings. In this case, the society being castigated is the human race itself, save a few of its most righteous members. Another important element of this tale, found in many flood myths including one Greek legend, called the tale of Deucalion and Pyrrhain, in which Zeus swamped the world with rain, destroying everyone except for two righteous survivors , is the idea of a solitary hero and his mate who build a boat, escape the deluge, and repopulate the earth.
For this reason the story of Noah represents something less than total annihilation; it is apocalypse with an escape clause. Furthermore, in the Noah saga, God pledges that global flooding will never happen again. Clearly this message is meant to offer solace to those reading the tale. Interestingly, though, God doesn't promise never to destroy the world again, just never to do so again by deluge. Thus, we find additional apocalyptic scenarios—though never by water—later on in the Bible.
Some biblical scholars consider the source of the Noah story to be the ancient Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. The Babylonian kingdom once comprised what is now known as southern Iraq. This tale is the oldest known flood chronicle to be preserved in writing. It was scribed in cuneiform almost four thousand years ago on a series of clay tablets.
These tablets were unearthed in the s by the young English archeologist Austen Layard. Layard was excavating the. In the early s, British archeologist George Smith translated the tablets, and came to the realization that they represented a story of the great deluge even older than the biblical version. He presented his findings in to an astonished audience at a meeting of the Society for Biblical Archaeology. The part of the Epic of Gilgamesh tihat deals with the great flood begins with the namesake of the tale engaged in a long, perilous trek. Gilgamesh, a warrior king whose best friend and traveling companion Enkidu has fust died, has set out on a quest for the secret of eternal life.
He seeks the dwelling place of the only man who has ever achieved immortality, Utnapishtim, survivor of the great flood. Utnapishtim lives with his wife in the "place beyond the Waters of Death. Utnapishtim begins his report by explaining that the decision to flood the earth and rid it of its human population was made by the gods sometime in the distant past.
He doesn't relate why they made their momentous decision; other flood myths from the region explain that the gods often tire of human chatter. Once the resolution was confirmed, the god of the waters, Ea, appeared to Utnapishtim in a dream and warned him of what was to come. He was told to tear down his house of reeds, and use the materials to construct an ark. Curiously, the ark was to be built in the shape of a cube, of dimensions specified by Ea. He was further instructed to load the boat with Ms family, his personal craftsmen, and representative animals.
Utnapishtim then relates how he obeyed Ea's instructions to the letter, and boarded the ark as soon as it began to rain. The rains came hard and fast, and soon covered the earth with water. After seven days of deluge, it finally stopped raining and Utnapishtim's sMp came to rest on the mountain of Nisir. He waited another seven days and then disembarked. As the floodwaters receded, Utnapishtim and Ms family proceeded to repopulate the Earth.
Ea counseled them to use other methods of annihilation in the future. His suggestions included death by plague, mutilation by wild animals, and starvation through famine. The gods consequently agreed to these "progressive" alternative approaches, and bestowed on Utnapishtim, for all of his troubles, the secret of everlasting existence.
After Utnapishtim concludes his tale, he instructs Gilgamesh on where to find the plant of eternal life. Gilgamesh, eager for immortality, eventually hunts down and finds the plant. But then, before he has a chance to taste the plant, a serpent appears and snatches it from him, Gilgamesh comes to realize that death is the lot of all men, save a lucky few exceptions gifted by the gods.
Flood Fossils There are hundreds of other flood myths, associated with numerous peoples throughout the globe. In almost all of these legends, humankind has been punished for its transgressions, and is fated for watery extinction. Then, in the majority of these epics, a solitary man or family becomes exempted from the apocalypse, and is chosen to repopulate the Earth.
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Philip Freund, in his book Myths of Creation, describes a few of the legendary methods of salvation from universal deluge; Nichant, the hero of the Gros Ventres, swims while holding onto a buffalo horn. Rock, the bold ancestor of the Arapaho Indians, fashions himself a boat of fungi and spider webs. The lone progenitor of the Annamese saves himself in a tom-tom.
The Hero of the Ahoms in Burma uses a gigantic gourd which, by magical intervention, providentially grows out of a little seed. Perhaps the experience of the melting of. Or more likely, local floods, from time to time, caused such widespread tragedy that they were viewed as universal. Word of mouth accounts may have transformed regional disasters into events of epic proportions. For instance, when travelers from different nations swapped stories again and again, their recounting of floods may have taken on greater and greater terror.
Those who believe that a great deluge actually took place often point to fossil evidence of maritime life displaced where it shouldn't be. These "diluvianists" point to strange cases of uprooting such as sea shell fossils discovered in French inland rocks and whale skeletons found in the Sahara desert. But "gradualists" of the school of Charles Lyell, the noted 19th century naturalist, rebut that the world's waterways and land formations have slowly evolved over the eons.
In spite of the strong influence of Lyellian thought on modern geology, attempts to prove scientifically the biblical flood account persist. Some speculative thinkers have pondered the notion that a comet collision thousands of years ago caused the great deluge. This tradition dates at least as far back as a treatise, entitled A New Theory cfthe Earth, from its Original to the Consummation of All Things, published in by the English mathematician William Whiston. In this text, Whiston proposes that the flood was caused by rain pouring down from a nearby comet's vaporous tail.
Though few of Whiston's contemporaries could see any scientific merit to Ms thesis, his supporters included such notables as Isaac Newton and John Locke. Acclaimed comet watcher Edmund Halley, writing around the same time as Whiston, similarly proposed that the deluge was set off by cometary bombardment.
More recently, the idea that a great flood was caused by extraterrestrial influences has become associated with the theories of the late fringe scientist Immanuel Velikovsky, Recall that Velikovsky argued that Venus was once a comet, and that it passed very close to. Earth several times. Velikovsky proposed that the close passage of a comet caused catastrophic tidal forces to devastate Earth. As the comet neared, ocean waters supposedly washed up onto the shores and flooded large land areas.
These tidal waves were monumental, beyond the scope of any seen before. The biblical tale of Noah, Velikovsky maintained, is a loose narrative of these cataclysmic events. Could the impact or near-collision of a celestial body with the Earth have caused a great flood?
Highly unlikely. First of all, there are no indications in the geological record of a deluge of such universal proportions. Surely evidence of such a catastrophic event if it had occurred would be omnipresent in the rocky strata examined by geologists, much more so than the isolated examples of uprooting that they have observed. And further, if a comet or asteroid caused the flood then there would be global connections in the rock record between collision debris and residue from a deluge. Also, scientists, such as D. E, Gault and C.
Sonett of NASA's Ames Research Center, have run laboratory simulations, testing what the impact of a massive projectile on the Earth's oceans would be like. Most likely, while coastal areas would be greatly affected, hilly and mountainous regions, as well as places far from the ocean, would barely be touched. Thus, it seems clear that extraterrestrial bombardment could not have caused a flood of biblical proportions.
Rhythms of Renewal In the absence of a literal scientific explanation for the prevalence of flood legends, it is instructive to look at metaphorical reasons instead. By examining what the notion of deluge meant to ancient cultures, we may gain insight into the reasons why they believed a great flood had taken place. Water possesses a chaotic power. It is a bearer of life and a bringer of death. It soothes the parched lips of desert nomads, and.
It is a source of sustenance and a receptacle of waste, 1 tickling slowly through tree-lined canals or over stony waterfalls, it provides endless beauty. But whirling around a ship in a mael Strom, it offers matchless terror. We are born in water, emanating from a sac of amniotic fluid. Human life emerges fresh and wet from the womb. In this manner, water is a creator of potentialities, a symbol of birth and rebirth.
No wonder the ancients considered deluge to be the chosen method of the gods for worldly renewal. When the gods wanted to recreate the earth, they bathed it in a birth-sac of fluid, and delivered a new breed of human. For the ancients, then, the great flood constituted a universal rebirth, with the gods as midwife. Most early cultures perceived time as a cycle. They believed that the world has been created, destroyed, and recreated an infinite number of times. In general, these cycles of demolition and rebuilding follow a standard blueprint from culture to culture.
After the episode of destruction is over, a new civilization emerges from the ruins of the old, led by the survivors of the previous society. The new society grows and develops until it reaches its pinnacle. This "golden age" of peace and prosperity lasts for many centuries, perhaps even several millennia. Following the golden age comes a period of decadence, in which corruption and other forms of sin run rampant. This degradation leads to the society's ruin.
FinaEy, according to the standard blueprint, civilization becomes wiped out again by a major catastrophe and the cycle begins again.
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Religious historian Mircea Eliade documents in Ms book, The Myth of the Eternal Return, how notions of great cycles were omnipresent among ancient cultures. The idea that the world will renew itself someday provided early societies with a measure of optimism. No matter how bad things were, Eliade reports, these groups clung to the hope that a new cycle of time would usher in a new golden age. A flood, or some other type of disaster, would wipe out all evil, and thereafter herald in a time of goodness and joy. In primitive mythology, floods were considered to be just one of a class of possible agents of global renewal.
Other forces of destruction and recreation common to ancient myths include great fires, widespread famine, droughts, plagues and devastating warfare. In many schemes, cycles of time begin with one of these agents deluge, for instance , and end with another such as fire. Consider, for example, the cyclical concept of history believed in by the peoples of ancient Babylonia. According to Babylonian mythology, worldly events repeat themselves in multi-millennial intervals known as "Great Years.
Rather than being measured by the time it takes for the Earth to travel around the Sun, they comprise instead the period in which the planets those known at that time repeat their relative morions in the sky. In other words, one Great Year is the interval between two complete alignments of all of the planets. Babylonian mythology distinguishes between times in which the planetary alignment takes place in the part of the zodiac known as Cancer, and times when it occurs in Capricorn.
Concurrent with the Great Winter Solstice is a period of deluge, when the world is covered by water. The Epic of Gilgamesh records one such instance of this flooding. In contrast, when the Great Summer Solstice makes its presence known in the heavens, the world becomes destroyed by fire. Our perspective here does not permit a complete accounting of all of the cyclical time schemes of ancient cultures from around the.
In many early cultures, including the Greek and Babylonian, planetary alignments were seen as heralding the beginnings of new ages. The main differences He in details such as how long each cycle lasts, as well as the nature of the catastrophe that closes each cycle. For example, the Hindu time scheme includes world cycles, known as Kalpas, each lasting 4,,, years. At the end of each Kalpa, the Earth bursts into flames, and a new creation emerges from the ashes of tihe old.
Other cultures' timetables are distinguished by much shorter intervals; the world cycle of the Aztecs and Mayans is only fifty-two years. Thus Spake Zarathustra When we imagine global apocalypse, we picture the end of life on Earth, or at least the close of civilization. We consider the effects of "doomsday" to be resolute and eternal. Yet for most of the world's ancient peoples, global cataclysm was believed to be followed by epochs of universal renewal, as we saw with stories of a great flood. The contemporary Western linear notion of history—comprising a unique progression from a fixed moment of creation in the past to a definitive ending in the future—offers a far bleaker version of apocalypse.
In linear historical conceptions of time, doomsday represents the end of civilization at least as we know it , rather than the close of one cycle and the start of the next. The linear way of thinking about the end of the world has crept into the human psyche rather gradually. Cyclical time schemes were very attractive to early agricultural societies mainly because of the natural analogy between great cycles and the seasons. Primitive cultures felt comfortable thinking of history as seasonal—with the hot blasts of summer succeeding the flowery golden age of spring, and the cold rains or snows of winter following the solemn decline of autumn.
It was only by shattering this metaphor that the modern idea of history as an indelible succession of events could begin. One of the first religions to break the mold of belief in cyclic eternity was the Persian faith, Zoroastrianism. The Zoroastrian creed is based on the principles of Zarathustra, also known as Zoroaster, who lived according to the conjectures of historians sometime between. It also encompasses many rituals and beliefs from primitive cultures that lived in and around Iran thousands of years ago.
A highly ethical religion, Zoroastrianisnt makes strong distinctions between the principles of good and evil. Its holy writings, the Avesta, serve as guidelines to promote lives devoted to justice and decency toward others. The most important concept in Zoroastrianism is called asha. This word has no exact equivalent in English. Loosely translated, it means "the way things ought to be. Sincerity, personal integrity, truthfulness, and honor are all components of such a lifestyle. Zoroastrianism makes strong distinctions between moral antitheses. It teaches the belief that people have the capability of doing either good or evil, and must learn to choose the former.
They must aspire to follow asha, and eschew its opposite, druj falseness. The righteous, who lead lives of asha, are called ashavan. On the other hand, those who practice evil, and bring disorder to the world, are referred to as drujvan. The concepts of asha and druj pertain to universal laws, as well as to human affairs.
Asha organizes the cosmos. It steers the planets along their paths, and makes the sun come up each day. Druj creates chaos, disharmony, and death. It is responsible for all that goes wrong with nature. Asha is a much stronger force than druj; that is why nature usually appears beautiful and harmonious. One crucial difference between Zoroastrianism and religions based on time cycles such as Hinduism lies in what the former has to say about the end of the world.
Unlike devotees of cyclical timebased faiths, Zoroastrians believe in a "last judgement," in which good is rewarded, evil is punished, and history draws to a close. The principles of Zarasthustra do not allow for evil to return again after the time of judgement; therefore, from that point on, new cycles of existence would be impossible. Once the force of asha reigns triumphant, the human drama is over. Like the Christian book of Revelation, the Zoroastrian concept of apocalypse is rich with vivid imagery.
In the closing days, the bodies of all who have ever walked on Earth will reassemble from dust and rise again. This grand resurrection will transform all of the dead back. Once the whole of humankind has been revived, it will be gathered together to witness the ultimate triumph of good over evil, The rendering of the final verdict will be swift and decisive. The process will begin when all of the mountains of the world catch on fire, and their metal is melted, A flood of molten metal will then flow down from the mountains and cover the entire Earth.
All those who have been resurrected will be required to pass through this vast molten stream. For the wicked drujvan, this ritual will truly represent their last ordeal. They will step into the hot liquid and become painfully consumed. The presence of evil will literally become dissolved from the face of the planet forever. The saintly ashavan, in contrast, will not mind plunging into the river one bit. For them, it will seem to be made of warm milk rather than of fiery metal. They will pass through the liquid completely unharmed. After all of the wicked have perished, leaving only the righteous, the river of molten metal will pour into the bowels of the earth.
The earth's topography will have changed by then. Because all of the mountains will have melted down, the earth's surface will consist of a flat plain. The landscape will become transformed as well. Stately trees and colorful flowers, beautiful beyond compare, will sprout up from the flattened surface. The world will seem a paradise, comparable only to heaven and the legendary Garden of Eden. The ashavan, having passed the test of fire, will be granted the gift of immortality.
They will live in the earthly paradise forever, enjoying lives of harmonious bliss. Here we see in Zoroastrian belief an early formulation of the concepts of heaven and hell. Zoroastrians hold individuals fully accountable for their life's work. Those who spend their lifetimes in just pursuits are amply rewarded; they are blessed with eternal happiness.
On the other hand, those who squander their mortal existence are ultimately condemned to the fiery lake of torment. Unlike the case of cyclical religions, such as Hinduism, there are no second chances. Daniel's Dreams Religious scholars believe that Zoroastrian thought about heaven, hell, and the end of the world had a strong influence on the early development of the great monotheistic faiths of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
In the case of Judaism, it is clear that there were many opportunities for cultural crossbreeding. For a time, the ancient Hebrews were ruled by Persians, and were fully exposed to their faith. Moreover, years after the temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by Babylonian invaders, the Persian king Cyrus intervened on behalf of the Jews and aEowed them to rebuild their temple.
This generous act sparked sympathetic feelings among the Jewish people toward the Zoroastrians, Undoubtedly this encouraged the Jews to learn even more about the Persian faith. Perhaps it is no coincidence, then, that the first lengthy discussions in the Hebrew Bible about the end of days occurs in the book of Daniel, dating back to a period when the Persian empire was formidable.
The book of Daniel embodies the Old Testament's primary source of apocalyptic writings, containing several accounts of prophetic dreams and other premonitions about doomsday. Interestingly, there are many parallels between the apocalyptic ideas expressed in Daniel and those taught as part of the Zoroastrian creed. Daniel, the protagonist of the story, is one of the Bible's most unusual heroes.
When he was a boy, Jerusalem was sacked by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, who ordered its richest treasures and the most promising of its youths to be brought to the royal court. As one of this select group, Daniel grew up as a page in training, schooled by royal instructors. He soon discovered that he had a remarkable gift for prophecy and began to exercise his talents.
The Bible recounts a specular series of apocalyptic visions described by the youth. The most famous of these portents concerns four great beasts: Four great beasts came up out of the sea, different from one another. The first was like a lion and had eagle's wings After this I looked, and. After this I saw in the night visions, and behold, a fourth beast, terrible and dreadful and exceedingly strong; and it had great iron teeth and The four beasts, he relates, represent four kingdoms that wiH become embroiled in conflict.
The fourth monster—the most terrible—stands for the powers that will emerge as victor. Thus Daniel prophesies that the last days of the world will constitute an age of bitter turmoil. Daniel goes on to speak about a great resurrection of all who have ever lived that will take place in the closing days of the world: Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.
And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the firmament; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars for ever and ever. His account of the separation of good from evil parallels the Zoroastrian belief in the division of humankind into ashavan, who become immortals, and drufvan, who perish in shame. Judaism has continued the tradition of faith in the coming of the "end times," as expressed in Daniel, and has passed on that conviction to Mam and Christianity.
Over the ages, Jewish eschatological notions have come to encompass belief in a Messiah—a future leader designated by God to rule the world in its final days. The Jews have continued to wait for the arrival of such a figure, eschewing the Christian belief that this role has already been filled by Jesus Christ. Throughout history, the Jewish people have encountered a number of charismatic figures who have proclaimed themselves "Messiah.
After persuading thousands of devotees to give up their possessions and join him, he was threatened with death by Turkish officials. With his life in grave peril, he converted to Islam, much to the dismay of his followers. The Muslim faith shares with Judaism the notion that world history is prophesied to someday draw to a close, and with Zoroastrianism, strong beliefs in heaven and hell. In the Koran, the Islamic holy book, there are lengthy descriptions of the pleasures waiting for the devout, and the torments reserved for nonbelievers and other sinners. It is emblematic of the similarities between the Muslim and ancient Persian concepts of last judgment, that Islam took hold in Iran so rapidly and effectively.
Perhaps the most powerful religious description of the end of the world one also probably influenced by Zoroastrianism is the Christian account of apocalypse in the book of Revelation. Revelation is one of the most over-interpreted and little understood parts of the Bible. The timeline that it follows is similarly vague; it does not specify whether its enumerated events are supposed to have taken place in the years immediately after the crucifixion of Jesus, one thousand years afterward, today, or during a period far in ttie distant future.
For this reason, devotees throughout the ages have sought to interpret it in the manner most concordant with their own beliefs. For the very first Christians, the prophetic passages of Revelation must have possessed a terrifying but spiritually fulfilling immediacy. As years went by, however, and the world did not experience the tribulations described in that book, the theological developers of nascent Christianity faced the task of deciphering its enigmatic timeline.
If Revelation did not refer to an imminent future, they wondered to when exactly it did apply. Critical to their endeavor was understanding the nature of the eschatologically significant millennia it describes. In one passage, it. In another, it describes a thousand year interval in which the righteous reign with Christ, Like detectives trying to solve a mystery by silting through available evidence, many theological interpreters viewed these passages as critical clues in the understanding of God's ordained future chronology of the human race. Using these lines, along with other biblical descriptions, they attempted to pin down precisely when the world would end.
Their prognostications took on heightened poignancy during times of great hardship, particularly during the bleakest days of the Middle Ages when disease swept relentlessly through Europe. The words of Revelation tolled like somber church bells in the hearts of those faced with untold devastation and unbearable sorrow. In the year of Our lard IMS the deadly plague broke out in the great city of Florence, most beautiful of Italian cities.
Whether through the operation of the heavenly bodies or because of our own inequities which the just wrath of God sought to correct, the plague had arisen in the East some years before, causing the death of countless human beings. Neither knowledge nor human foresight availed against it Between March and the following July it is estimated more than a hundred thousand human beings lost their lives within the walls of Florence, what with the ravages attendant on the plague and the barbarity of the survivors toward the sick.
Who would have thought before the plague that the city had held so many inhabitants? As waves of pestilence swept through lands unfamiliar with sanitary precautions, millions of Europeans met gruesome, untimely deaths. Those who desperately clung to life were paralyzed with anxiety. They were facing forces over which they had no control. No one knew when the next plague would break out and what its repercussions would be.
This fear of a cataclysmic future served to fertilize myriads of doomsday cults. Painting their gruesome imagery using a palette of unspeakable horror—the vivid descriptions delineated in the book of Revelation— they portrayed, to the weary masses, scenes of impending universal calamity as deadly as the plague or even worse.
One cannot, however, characterize the whole of the Middle Ages as an age of apocalyptic terror. Fear of armageddon rose and fell, again and again, as each tide of disease crested and subsided throughout the lands of Europe. Apocalyptic fervor also waxed and waned due to the coming and going of other hardships—natural catastrophes such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, fires, floods, and droughts, as well as social problems such as warfare, crime and poverty. The early Middle Ages, the fifth through ninth centuries A.
During the first part of the medieval epoch, the population of Europe was relatively low, mainly spread out through the countryside rather than concentrated in cities and towns. Therefore, disease did not spread very rapidly, certainly not as fast as it would several centuries later when Europe became more crowded. Anxiety was much lower and social stability higher than it would be later. For these reasons, faith in a growing and organized Catholic Church, rather than fear of future calamity, ruled the day. With this increasing social order came the church hierarchy's desire to cast the book of Revelation—with its descriptions of coming calamity, the most radical book of the Bible—in a more conservative light.
The first theological attempt to do so, even before the Middle Ages began, was performed by Origen, a third century scholar of. Origen suggested the prophetic segments of the New Testament should be applied to the individual, rather than to the world as a whole. Instead of a literal chronicle of the future, he believed that these enigmatic writings should be viewed as an allegory, pointing the way to personal redemption. Thus, true believers, who have found the way to righteousness, need not fear global apocalypse.
Stimulated by Origen's ideas, the church began to consider seriously metaphorical interpretations of New Testament prophecies. Without a doubt, the religious scholar who shaped early medieval belief to the greatest extent was St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo. He particularly helped to adapt Catholic philosophy to the growing conservatism of the time. Bringing order to seeming chaos, Augustine molded the disturbing imagery presented in Revelation into solid, soothing theological doctrine.
At a time when numerous hands were attempting to mold Christianity, Augustine's extraordinary gift of rhetoric established him as the artisan of an astonishingly resilient philosophical framework upon which clerical thought was hung during the Middle Ages. In spite of his mother's considerable influence for which she was later canonized as Saint Monica , Augustine embraced Christianity only after years of experimentation with other faiths.
As a young man, he was particularly drawn to the Manichaeist religion, a popular system of beliefs at the time. Manichaeism, the doctrine of the fourth century Persian prophet Mani, represented a unique combination of Zoroastrianism, Buddhism and Christianity. After immersing himself in this faith, Augustine eventually found that Mani's teachings did not address all of his spiritual and emotional needs. Dabbling in several other mystical reEgions, he finally became a convert to Christianity. Augustine was a remarkably prolific author.
He wrote treatises, including The Confessions, a candid spiritual autobiography, and City of God, a comprehensive interpretation of the Bible that be-. Much like the case of a prosecutor becoming a defense attorney, his years outside of Christianity gave him a keen sense of ways of anticipating and then countering critiques of the faith. In Ms position of critic-turned-supporter, Augustine was very much aware of the puzzling aspects of the book of Revelation.
And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound Mm a thousand years, and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years.
And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of Ms prison, and shall go out to deceive the nations wMch are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle.. MiBenarians, believers in an impending time of apocalypse, felt that they could combine the predictions of tMs portion of Revelation with the chronology suggested by other biblical references to foretell precisely when doomsday would arrive.
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By synthesizing the account in Genesis that the world was created in six days, with the statement in Peter, "One day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years. Estimating, by these calculations, that it would take a total of six thousand years for the human chronicle to unfold, and reckoning that Earth was already thousands of years old, they predicted that the end of time could not be far off. The year of universal destruction, based on these estimates, was initially calculated to be A. Later, however, after that year came and went without event, revised opinion put it at A.
Over the centuries, predictors of apocalypse have forecast new dates of doom again and again to explain away unmet prophesies. The millenarians believed that the final millennium of history in which they thought they were living consists of a time in which the goodness of God keeps the evil of Satan in check.
Very soon, they preached, Satan will be released from Ms prison and wreak absolute chaos upon the world. Augustine countered these forecasts, which he found to be unnecessarily alarming, with an alternative, looser, model of time. The period of one thousand years, he implored, should not be taken literally as the fixed duration of a particular biblical era. Rather, he suggested, it should be considered in a purely figurative manner. To him, as the cube of the number ten, "one thousand" seemed to embody perfection.
Biblical references to that figure, he felt, were meant as allusions to the perfect nature of the totality of human history. Thus, for the Bishop of Hippo, "one thousand years" signified "the whole of man's days on Earth. He viewed the last book of the Christian Bible as a testament to the purity of those who honor Christ and belong to his church. Satan was free, he felt, to muddle the hearts and minds of those outside of Christendom, but could not affect those within its fortress.
Thus, in Augustine's opinion, Revelation served as a tribute to the protective power and longevity of the church, by drawing attention to the horrific alternatives. Augustinian doctrine thereby served to dissuade Christians from ruminating on when and how the apocalypse would occur. Rather, it urged believers to focus their spiritual energies on embracing the community of the church, and to follow its practices as a bulwark against evil. The devout—those who reign with Christ and share his love and protection—need not fear the end of the world, and should waste little time worrying about the ghastly images of destruction in Revelation, Augustine's words of caution served well the interests of the church of his time.
Although Christianity began as a small alternative movement, by the fourth century it had become the official creed of the Roman Empire and a dominant force around the world. Its self-preserving interests were in allaying, not fanning, the fears of the populace. Church officials knew that only anarchy would ensue if apocalyptic anxiety were to get out of hand.
Thus Augustinian belief very quickly became adopted as orthodox doctrine. The common folk, locked into lives of hard work in the field, and simple devotion in church, saw no need to panic in the face of prophesied doom. Only a few rogue individuals, who happened to have fallen through small tears in an otherwise tightly woven social network, had reason to preach of disaster.
With prosperity in Europe, however, came a swelling of population that ironically led to a gradual undoing of the calm. Growing numbers of people meant larger cities, substantial overcrowding, rising homelessness, devastating poverty, and virulent disease. As these social problems took their toll, talk of coming doomsday built from a background whisper to a rising crescendo.
The Year In our privileged historical position to experience the turning of the third millennium, we might naturally wonder what happened during the last such opportunity: the advent of the year Considering biblical references to thousand year spans, particularly in. But that need not be the case. One might conversely conjecture that Augustinian cautions about the dangers of millenarianism would serve to temper all sense of panic.
What actually occurred in the year is a matter of debate. Numerous contemporary scholars have studied that year, examining whether it was a time of great trepidation or a period just like any other. Original sources chronicling the history of that year are so rare, thus there is considerable controversy regarding this question.
Most current medieval historians feel that came and went with little impact. They point to the sparsity of direct evidence of apocalyptic fervor during that period, and dismiss secondhand accounts as being prone to exaggeration. They believe the writings available from that era, reporting harbingers associated with the coming of the new millennium, are generally valid. Landes, who has launched an intensive study of the year , notes the overwhelming confusion throughout Western Europe at that time, calling it "the mother of all apocalyptic moments.
Glaber, who was put into a monastic school by his uncle, led the life of a vagabond, wandering from one monastery to another. During the course of his travels, he kept a careful record of his impressions. His written journal, and presumably his life, seems to have ended at Cluny around Glaber's writings frame the years around the turn of the second millennium as a time of absolute chaos.
His portrait of that age pictures Christians bracing themselves for apocalypse while they witnessed a terrifying chain of ominous tragedies. One after another, a series of natural disasters brought their houses, families, marketplaces, and churches all to states of ruin. The petrified masses became increasingly certain with each catastrophe that their days on Earth were numbered.
This string of cataclysmic events began, as. Glaber relates, with the sudden eruption of Italian volcano Mt Vesuvius: In the seventh year before [the year ] Mount Vesuvius, which is also called Vulcan's cauldron, gaped far more often than his wont and belched forth a multitude of vast stones mingled with sulfurous flames which fell even to a distance of three miles around. It befell meanwhile that almost all the cities of Italy and Gaul were ravaged by flames of fire, and that the greater part even of the city of Rome was devoured by a conflagration At the same time a horrible plague raged among men, namely a hidden fire which, upon whatsoever limb it fastened, consumed it and severed it from the body Moreover, about the same time, a most mighty famine raged for five years throughout the Roman world, so that no region could be heard of which was not hunger stricken for lack of bread, and many of the people were starved to death.
In those days also, in many regions, the horrible famine compelled men to make their food not only of unclean beasts and creeping things, but even of men's, women's, and children's flesh, without regard even of kindred; for so fierce waxed this hunger that grown-up sons devoured their mothers, and mothers, forgetting their maternal love, ate their babes.
It is hard to imagine the taboo against the consumption of human flesh being violated on such a major scale. Perhaps Glaber was engaging in a bit of hyperbole at that point of his narrative in order to emphasize the misery of his times. Since no other texts corroborate nor contradict the period Glaber is describing, it is hard to sort fact from fiction. Indeed, Cambridge historian G. G, Coulton, one of the principal modern scholars of that period, cautions in a translation of Glaber's text not to draw "exaggerated deductions" from that work. Consider, for example, this second hand account of the dreaded final hours before 1QGQ, as told by writer Richard Erdoes: On the last day of the year , according to an ancient chronicle, the old basilica of St.
Peter's at Rome was thronged with a mass of weeping and trembling worshipers awaiting the end of the world. This was the dreaded eve of the millennium, the Day of Wrath when the earth would dissolve into ashes As the minutes passed and the fateful hour was about to strike, a deathly silence filled the venerable basilica But when the fatal hour passed and the earth did not open to swallow up church and worshipers, and when no fire fell from heaven burning everything alive to ashes, all stirred as if awaking from a bad dream.
Then everybody breathed a sigh of relief amid much weeping and laughing. Husband and wife, servant and master embraced each other as friends and exchanged the kiss of peace. Then all the bells of St. Peter's, of the Lateran, of the Aventine, of every church upon the Seven Hills of Rome began to ring, praising the Lord as with one single voice. The bitter cup had passed, the world was like reborn and all humankind rejoiced, as related by many ancient chroniclers.
Yet because we cannot return to those times and find out what actually occurred one thousand years ago, we might only hope that new primary sources appear and help clear up the matter. Joachim of Fiore Though the question of how much doomsday panic gripped the masses in the year is a matter of controversy, present-day historians are much more certain of the sizable extent to which it affected thirteenth century European believers.
In the intervening centuries, poverty, overpopulation and disease had risen considerably. These social ills led to a great increase in the number and influence of apocalyptic movements. Modern scholars readily explain how the conditions for this mass hysteria developed.
The populace in Europe had grown far beyond what the age-old agricultural system could possibly support. With nowhere else to turn, thousands of peasants crowded into newly-established urban centers. Some of them found work, but a great number were unemployed. In short order, a permanent underclass developed, with little constructive role to play in society. This group of beggars, vagabonds, and other outsiders had nothing to lose—and a sense of solidarity to gain—by joining fringe movements.
Whenever a charismatic leader required a cadre of loyal followers, he need only look to these urban misfits for support. The lure of apocalyptic cults grew even stronger during times of natural disaster. Whenever the lives of the displaced peasantry were disturbed by any kind of unforeseen catastrophe, their collective rage often became channeled into groups preaching that the world would soon end. As British historian Norman Cohn relates: Any disturbing, frightening or exciting event—any kind of revolt or revolution, a summons to a crusade, an interregnum, a plague or famine, anything in fact which disrupted the normal routine of social life—acted on these people with peculiar sharpness and called forth reactions of peculiar violence.
And one way in which they attempted to deal with their common plight was to form a Salvationist group under a messianic leader. Augustine's writings had steered devout Christians away from looking at Revelation as a predictive text. Because of his influ-. When in the thirteenth century, apocalyptic movements were on the rise again, these groups turned to another Catholic philosopher for guidance, Joachim, the Abbot of Fiore. Joachim of Fiore was born in Calabria, Italy, in After many years of studying the Bible, he began to suspect hidden meaning buried within its text.
Some time between and , he developed a new biblical approach that, in his opinion, enabled him to predict the future. Joachim's novel interpretation found numerous parallels between the Old and New Testaments—relating the stories of Adam and Abraham to the chronicles of Jesus and the apostles. Extrapolating forward in time—toward the time of Ms writing—he postulated further parallels between the age of Jesus and the Christian monastic period. The essence of Joachim's work is that the history of the world can be divided into three distinct epochs, each corresponding to a member of the Holy Trinity.
In Joachim's system, the first part of the biblical chronicle—lasting from Adam until the generation before Jesus—can be represented by the Father, and is known as the "Age of Law. Following the "Age of Law," in this scheme, was a time of heavenly mercy, ruled by the Son, and called the "Age of the Gospel. Finally, Joachim delineated a third and ultimate period of history: the "Age of the Holy Spirit. Lasting until the end of time itself, it will be a period in which everyone lives in a state of spiritual bliss.
The model for life during this era will be that of a monastic order, where all are servants of God. Humankind will spend their days chanting and praying—reveling forever in the beauty of divine creation. Based upon his outline of history, Joachim estimated when he thought the mundane world would be destroyed, and the new spiritual age would begin.
Using the genealogy detailed in the Gospel of Matthew as a guide, he reckoned that there had been forty-two generations from Adam to Jesus. Since he believed the Old and New Testaments parallel each other, he concluded that there would be forty-two additional generations between the time of Christ and the end of the world. Human history would draw to a close sometime shortly after , he calculated; most likely it would end around Joachim predicted that the last few years before the culmination of history would be a time of utter chaos. An evil king would gain phenomenal power throughout the world, playing the role that the New Testament refers to as the "antichrist.
Only after the human race became immersed in the waters of total devastation would it emerge pure and holy, and ready for the Age of the Spirit. The Abbot of Fiore was hardly a radical. His work was sanctioned by three popes, who found great worth in his biblical interpretation and saw him as no threat. Although his conclusions about the shape of things to come were drastically different from those of Augustine, Joachim did his best to offer tribute to his more conservative philosophical predecessor. He certainly had no desire to overturn existing religious institutions and establish a new way of thinking.
Yet, in spite of Joachim's modest nature and limited goals, his writings met the collected expectations of the masses like the summer sun on dried leaves. Engulfing thousands of self-perceived sinners who feared God's wrath, this conflagration of apocalyptic terror left few places untouched. Picture a parade of tormented men, their backs bloodied by selfinflicted torture, praying fervently that their souls would be saved. Carrying banners by day and lit candles by night, they would march through the streets of towns and villages, until they arrived at a main square, in front of a church.
Martin makes impressive use of literary references to illustrate the degree to which we commonly and accurately observe the link between health and psyche. Here, presented in a fascinating and uniquely accessible manner, are the latest scientific solutions to some ancient puzzles concerning the relationship between brain, behavior, immunity, and disease. This annual survey deals with statistics of deaths relating to England and Wales, classified by sex and age. It also includes certain information collected at the time of registration such as method of certification, place of death, and seasonal mortality.
Other tables within the survey give breakdowns of the data by local area and by cause of death. Since the age of 35, following the deaths of her parents and uncle, she lived a self-sufficient life without electricity or running water at Low Birk Hatt Farm. What most enchanted people about Hannah was that she survived sixty years of gruelling work and weather with unimpaired serenity and good humour. Her love of the countryside, her passion for animals and her appreciation of the right values make Hannah a remarkable woman and in this classic book she tells her unique and inspiring story.
Ritual and Chinese Painting , , Ann Clarke, , Alternative Ireland Diary , , , , Oxford University Press is pleased to announce the complete reissue of all the existing volumes of the Oxford History of English Literature. The set, originally published in thirteen volumes, is soon to be expanded to fifteen volumes with the forthcoming and publications of volumes VI, Shakespeare, and Volume XVI, Victorian Novel. Readers can now collect any of the thirteen volumes they missed upon the first publication, while newcomers can obtain the fifteen-volume set all at once.
Handsomely presented in matching jackets, some of the books have been retitled for the purpose of the reissue, while the set as a whole has been renumbered for ease of use. The Sinope Affair , , Kenneth Tam, , Using a thrilling "birds-eye" visual perspective, Metropolis takes the young armchair time traveler directly to a variety of ancient civilizations. Here, the reader will find important landmarks, suggestions on what to eat and drink, where to stay, and tips on local customs and useful phrases. Annotation "How to Survive your Viva demystifies an opaque rite de passage PhD supervisors, examiners and viva chairs will find it a useful preparation for their roles too.
It requires the highest standard of communication skills. Writing a thesis or dissertation requires students to pull their ideas together into a unified whole; oral examinations take it all apart again. Typical questions, and strategies for answering them, are provided in order to help participants prepare and practise. The book features:Examples of questions and answersNarratives of experiencesPlanning toolsPreparation frameworkVerbal strategies to use in the viva in order to do justice to the thesisUser-friendly writing styleReading listHow to Survive Your Viva, Second Edition, builds on the strengths of the previous edition, with additional questions and exercises as well as information on trends and developments in the field.
It provides comprehensive coverage of the viva and is an essential handbook for all involved in oral examinations: students, supervisors, tutors and examiners, including undergraduate, Masters and doctoral examinations The Politics of Reconciliation in Multicultural Societies , , Will Kymlicka, Bashir Bashir, , Most countries around the world exhibit a long history of exclusion and discrimination directed against ethnic, racial, national, religious, or ideological groups.
The underlying justifications for these forms of exclusion have been increasingly discredited by the post-war human rights revolution, decolonization, and by contemporary norms of liberal-democratic constitutionalism, with their commitment to equal rights and non-discrimination. However, even as these older practices and ideologies of exclusion are discredited and repudiated, they continue to have enduring effects.
The legacies of exclusion can still be seen in a wide range of social attitudes, cultural practices, economic and demographic patterns, and institutional rules that obstruct efforts to build genuinely inclusive societies of equal citizens. Finding ways to overcome this problem is a major challenge facing virtually every society around the world. The Politics of Reconciliation in Multicultural Societies focuses on two parallel intellectual and political movements that have arisen to address this challenge: the 'politics of reconciliation', with its focus on reparations, truth-telling and healing amongst former adversaries, and the 'politics of difference', with its focus on the recognition and empowerment of minorities in multicultural societies.
Both the politics of reconciliation and the politics of difference are having a profound impact on the theory and practice of democracy around the world, but remarkably little has been written about the relationship between them. This book aims to fill that gap. Drawing on both theoretical analysis and case studies from around the world, the authors explore how the politics of reconciliation and the politics of difference often interact in mutually supportive ways, as reconciliation leads to more multicultural conceptions of citizenship.
But there are also important ways in which the two may compete in their aims and methods. The Politics of Reconciliation in Multicultural Societies is the first attempt to systematically explore these areas of potential convergence and divergence. Gaylord Hendricks, Carol Leavenworth,. Eng , , Joseph C.
Ethics for health care , , Catherine Anne Berglund, X, Ethics for Health Care, 2E takes a novel approach to learning about and understanding ethics. It draws on practical experiences and contemporary issues in its exploration of the ethical choices made in health care. The common theme followed in the book is that health care ethics are not only about setting acceptable standards, they are also about reflecting on what health care professionals should aim towards.
It is about reflecting on optimal standards, and pursuading those standards. In focusing on the interaction between the health provider and his or her client, the book skillfully incorporates individual and group exercises to help the reader think about particular issues or standards, or particular styles of ethical reflection. Tutorial- type triggers and case studies are also included.
Over fifty of these exercises, twenty-four of them new to this edition, assist in developing familiarity with the key ways of identifying, and working to resolve, ethical issues in health care. In this framework, the philosophical aspect of ethics become a tool that every potential and current health care worker can use to reflect on ethics as it applies to their profession. This is an introduction to the sky above us for young children featuring Harry and Ralph, a young boy and his dog as they journey around the world in a hot-air balloon.
On the way they come across all sorts of things, from weather balloons to polar bears and the geographic principles which shape our environment. It also includes projects and activities for children to try out themselves. This title explains climate, the atmosphere and the water cycle. Children are encouraged to observe, measure and record the weather and also to think about seasonal changes and the difference between hot and cold countries. Contains practical techniques and advice to streamline secretarial duties, write letters, handle records, etc.
Beginning in the hours before dawn, O'Donnell tells the story of this historic meeting, and the deeper story of how each boy was brought to this moment when music took control of their lives. In the early evening, Paul pulled out his guitar and ran through a medley of tunes for John, impressing the young leader of the Quarry Men Skiffle Group with both his playing and his knowledge of rock music.
One of the most important partnerships in the history of modern music was begun. Enabling power: Adoption and Children Scotland Act , s. Issued: Made: Laid before the Scottish Parliament: Coming into force: Effect: None. Author's Note: All author royalties generated by sales of this book are being donated to select charitable organizations. To find out where the proceeds will land, and more information on the book and author, please visit www. Book Description: After running into trouble in college, to finding himself in a cold prison cell, Keir fell to life's lowest bottom.
He faced a choice in that empty prison cell: he chose to never give up. From that lonely moment on, Keir embraced his harrowing imprisonment and seized this unique opportunity to recover, heal and grow. He began reading, teaching, public speaking, and with his typewriter, he began to write. Keir wrote as a way to work through his emotions, as a way to capture the experience and culture of prison, and in an attempt to fuel the glimmer of hope and inspiration that hides itself well in a world devoid of any light. This is a gripping collection of true stories from prison.
These stories explore the human condition in its rawest state, document the grueling journey of one man's recovery as he embarks on an uncharted road toward redemption, and strive to create reflection and inspiration in those who read them. Adler, , Satchel Paige could throw a baseball like no one else. But when he began his career in the s, even the best African American players were kept out of the major leagues.
Paige rose to stardom in the Negro Baseball Leagues--and he waited for his chance toplay in the "big show. David A. Adler and Terry Widener, the award-winning team behind several acclaimed sports biographies,have created a powerful story about a talented athlete who just wouldn't give up. Satchel Paige isan inspired subjectfor baseball lovers, readers who are interested in African American history, and anyone who has held on to a dream.
The Prayer Conspiracy , , Gatekeeper Publishing,. Oxford suksesvolle landbouwetenskappe: Leerdersboek. What we need is an instruction manual for life--a serious, carefully researched treatise filled with wisdom and insight. But it's a "lot" shorter than "The Brothers Karamazov, " plus it has more cartoons. Black Silk , , Judith Ivory, , As befitting her name, lovely Submit Channing-Downes was the proper, obedient wife of an aging Marquess--until her husbands death left her penniless and alone Entrusted with delivering a small black box to its rightful owner, she calls upon Graham Wessit, the notorious Earl of Netham, whose life has been marred by rumor and scandal.
Fate however, has entwined these two lives in astonishing ways neither Submit nor Graham could ever imagine. Religious Studies World Religions. Unit B , , Yitzchok Sliw, , Based on the authors course at NYU, Linear Algebra and Probability for Computer Science Applications gives an introduction to two mathematical fields that are fundamental in many areas of computer science. The course and the text are addressed to students with a very weak mathematical background.
The section on linear algebra gives an introduction to the theory of vectors, matrices, and linear transformations over the reals. It includes an extensive discussion on Gaussian elimination, geometric applications, and change of basis. It also introduces the issues of numerical stability and round-off error, the discrete Fourier transform, and singular value decomposition. The section on probability presents an introduction to the basic theory of probability and numerical random variables; later chapters discuss Markov models, Monte Carlo methods, information theory, and basic statistical techniques.
Examples and Programming AssignmentsThe examples and programming assignments focus on computer science applications. The applications covered are drawn from a range of computer science areas, including computer graphics, computer vision, robotics, natural language processing, web search, machine learning, statistical analysis, game playing, graph theory, scientific computing, decision theory, coding, cryptography, network analysis, data compression, and signal processing.
Homework ProblemsComprehensive problem sections include traditional calculation exercises, thought problems such as proofs, and programming assignments that involve creating MATLAB functions. Big Lake , , Nick Russell, , When an armored car hijacking leaves two men dead, Arizona Sheriff Jim Weber takes the crime personally, because one of the dead men is his brother-in-law.
His hunt for the killers leads him into a world of sordid sex, deceit, and violence, with a suspect list that includes jilted women, a family of anti-government survivalists, and the beautiful wife of the richest man in town. With a plot that has more twists and turns than an Arizona mountain road, a cast of characters you won't soon forget, and a shocking ending that shakes the town of Big Lake to its very foundation, this first book in the Big Lake series will keep you turning pages to the very end!
Author's Image , , P. Design of Light Aircraft , , Richard D. Hiscocks, , Ng, , The Alphabet Network , , Jeanette Bresnihan, , Behind the Line , , Ralph Henry Barbour, , Third down, four yards to gain! The referee trotted out of the scrimmage line and blew his whistle; the Hillton quarter-back crouched again behind the big center; the other backs scurried to their places as though for a kick.
In this latest thriller, rich with the "New York Times" bestselling author's trademark hair-raising action and imagination, an enzyme that will dramatically prolong life has been discovered 2, feet beneath the North Atlantic. But why are the people attempting to harvest it getting killed?
Basic issues in hearing: proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Hearing, Paterswolde, Netherlands, April , , , H. Duifhuis, J. Wiebe Horst, , The proceedings contain all the papers delivered at the symposium with transcripts of the discussions that followed. Petti, X, Apocalypse, translated literally from Greek, is a disclosure of knowledge, hidden from humanity in an era dominated by falsehood and misconception, i.
In religious contexts it is usually a disclosure of something hidden. In the Revelation of John, the last book of the New Testament, the revelation which John receives is that of the ultimate victory of good over evil and the end of the present age, and that is the primary meaning. Today, it is commonly and erroneously used in reference to any prophetic End Time scenario or to the end of the world in general. Once we understand our world as a reflection of the delicate metaphysical balance between Truth's incessant Will to be made manifest and the errant choices of human will, we will see the book of Revelation for what it really is - an unveiling of Truth through the harsh experiences that enlighten us.
In the final volume of the Apocalypse Now series, we examine Revelation's Sixth seal. The event will be significant enough to inspire everyone to change their priorities. Just as a near brush with death inspired many towards understanding Truth and the internal nature of our being, so too would humanity be inclined by a world-changing catastrophe.
Not a single person can tell us WHEN it will occur, but the event can be demonstrated as Revelation's looming harbinger or warning event. It is a prelude to doom, deception and long-awaited redemption for those who have departed. It earmarks the swift escalation towards the final battle between Truth and our perceptions of it. Discover the mysteries of Revelation's prophecy as the secrets unfold in Volume 5 of the Apocalypse Now Series. Cheyenne Again , , Eve Bunting, , In the late s, a Cheyenne boy named Young Bull is taken from his parents and sent to a boarding school to learn the white man's ways.
Tuffy's New Addition , , Helen Payne, , Strange Wonder confronts Western philosophy's ambivalent relationship to the Platonic "wonder" that reveals the strangeness of the everyday. On the one hand, this wonder is said to be the origin of all philosophy. On the other hand, it is associated with a kind of ignorance that ought to be extinguished as swiftly as possible.
By endeavoring to resolve wonder's indeterminacy into certainty and calculability, philosophy paradoxically secures itself at the expense of its own condition of possibility. Strange Wonder locates a reopening of wonder's primordial uncertainty in the work of Martin Heidegger, for whom wonder is first experienced as the shock at the groundlessness of things and then as an astonishment that things nevertheless are.
Mary-Jane Rubenstein traces this double movement through the thought of Emmanuel Levinas, Jean-Luc Nancy, and Jacques Derrida, ultimately thematizing wonder as the awesome, awful opening that exposes thinking to devastation as well as transformation. Rubenstein's study shows that wonder reveals the extraordinary in and through the ordinary, and is therefore crucial to the task of reimagining political, religious, and ethical terrain.
Presents, in text and photographs, a journey to Chaco Canton, New Mexico, examining ruins, culture, and theories of why the Anasazi abandoned the region. Adrogu, Donald E. Wesson, X, The major goal of this series is to bridge fundamental physiologic concepts with patient management. Each hardcover book uses simple questions followed by short presentations to illustrate the various topics discussed.
ISBN ; Potassium. ISBN X. History of U. Trackers Non-Fiction matches the quality of any mainstream resource and gives struggling readers the motivation and interest to want to read. Trackers also teaches and practises more of the key reading skills than any other SEN course, e. Enabling power: Highways Act , ss. Laid: -. Arm and Hammer , Poised for Growth? Editions Alecto: original graphics, multiple originals, , , Tessa Sidey, David Mellor,. Editions Alecto takes its title from the pioneering print publishers who produced contemporary artists' prints in Britain during the s and s, and promoted the idea of painters and sculptors being given the freedom to originate and realize ideas in multiple form.
The book brings together for the first time over 20 years' worth of 2-D graphic art and 3-D mutiple objects, and puts into context the ideas and mechanisms that helped make the graphic medium a central force for a generation of British, American and European artists. Comprising over images and documentary photographs the work of such significant figures as David Hockney, Eduardo Paolozzi, Patrick Caulfield, Richard Hamilton and Gillian Ayres features. The Narrow Road , , Steven Kaye, , A rich fantasy adventure in the Lord of the Rings genre.
Suitable for ages 12 and up - Diverse characters in beautifully detailed settings. The McLanes have delved into a wealth of primary sources, using old tax assessments, court records, and early maps, to spin their tales of the early settlers of Maine's islands and their descendants. Here is history as it too seldom is in textbooks: colorful, human, downright irresistible. Each volume is replete with rare vintage photos and dozens of maps, and will delight all who love islands, or simply a good read.
A collection of brief stories, facts, and biographical tidbits from Arizona history and lore, compiled from the author's radio programs broadcast from Payson. Ondre Nowakowski , , Ondre Nowakowski, , Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Ugly, pugly Pugsy! Everyone thinks he is the strangest, ugliest dog around. Everyone, that is, except Pugsye tm s owner, Ann-Marie. She knows how beautiful Pugsy really is, no matter what other people say. What will it take for poor Pugsy to be the happy and proud dog he should be? How will he realise that to feel good about himself on the outside, he needs to feel good on the inside first?
Prange, , Richards, David Bohlke, , Four Corners is an integrated four-skills English course for adults and young adults. Four Corners Workbook, Level 3 has eight-page units that can be used in class or for homework. Each unit provides students with additional vocabulary, grammar, functional language, and reading practice.
Models for open system protocol development: a technical report , , Liv A. Universal Dataflow and Telecommunications Core Program, , The Public Health Etc. Scotland Act Commencement No. Enabling power: Public Health etc. Scotland Act , s. Bringing into operation various provisions of the Act on Laid before the Scottish Parliament: -. Coming into force: -. Effect: S. Burnett, , A resource book in company law: edition. The Ethics of Banking analyzes the systemic and the ethical mistakes that led to the crisis.
It keeps the middle ground between excusing all failures by the argument of a systemic crisis not to be taken responsibility for by the financial managers and the moralistic reproach that only moral failure is at the origin of the crisis. It investigates the role of speculation in the formation of the crisis and distinguishes between productive speculation for hedging and for securing market liquidity on the one hand, and unproductive and even detrimental hyper-speculation going far beyond of the degree of speculation that is necessary in a developed economy for the liquidity of financial markets, on the other hand.
Hyper-speculation has increased the risks of the financial system and is still doing so. Traditionally science tries to answer the question: How does complexity arise in nature? But, say Jack Cohen and Ian Stewart in their exhilarating book, the more interesting question is: Why is there any simplicity? Beginning with a guided tour of the Islands of Truth that tells us everything we need to know about science from Newton to the present, the authors dive into the Oceans of Ignorance that surround them turning conventional science on its head and putting it in a larger context.
Provocative and controversial, their approach enables us to look at the world in a startling new way. Not only entertaining but also above all stimulating. This is the first entry-level book on algorithmic also known as automatic differentiation AD , providing fundamental rules for the generation of first- and higher-order tangent-linear and adjoint code.
The author covers the mathematical underpinnings as well as applications to real-world numerical simulation programs. Readers will find:? Many examples and exercises, including hints to solutions? The prototype AD tools dco and dcc for use with the examples and exercises? A supplementary website containing sources of all software discussed in the book, additional exercises and comments on their solutions growing over the coming years , links to other sites on AD, and errata. Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students, the book is also suitable for researchers and developers at all levels who need an introduction to AD.
Lifelong Motor Development , , Carl P. Gabbard, , Lifelong Motor Development, Sixth Edition, is a comprehensive, science-based text covering background, theory, and research in the field of physical growth and motor behavior across the life span, as well as the practical application of these concepts. The Sixth edition focuses on the notion that the study of motor development is the study of change. In order to truly understand the multicausal and complex nature of motor development, this book was created and continues with the goal of introducing students to not a single theoretical explanation, but the most prominent theories and views that underscore our understanding of change in motor developmentestablishing the Sixth edition as still the most scientific, contemporary, and applicable text of its kind.
For the increasing number of people looking for ways to make a difference while on vacation, this fully updated edition is filled with in-depth information to get them ready for their adventure, including contacts, locations, costs, dates, project details, and profiles of select organizations running thousands of programs in the United States and around the world.
Including new details about long-term projects and organizations specifically tailored for families, seniors, and the disabled, this definitive sourcebook provides a wealth of opportunities for anyone interested in taking a truly meaningful vacation and provides new anecdotes about all kinds of jobs and the positive impact they had on volunteers' lives. Composer, Seductress. For humans there is only memory, and memory is unreliable. This view was held by novelist and poet Victor Hugo, but not by his daughter, pianist and poet Adle Hugo. Under such constraints, what's a woman of passion to do?
Syncopation, by Elizabeth Caulfield Felt, breathes life into the unconventional thoughts of this controversial female figure. An elderly Adle recounts her desperate attempts to gain personal freedom.
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Bradford Burns, , A unique and delightful alphabet book which follows its host, Shadow, through a maze of boxes filled with enchantingly rendered drawings. Etiolation , , Gary Knapton, , Spindizzies, Gas-Powered Model Racers , , , , Comfort Food Cover Copy A romantic academic, a self-assured young writer, an enigmatic musician, a slacker, a wealthy mountain climber, and a former heroin addict--characters whose lives intersect in the unique debut novel Comfort Food. Stan Gillman-Reinhart is a graduate student at a small university in Bellingham, Washington in Through his experiences and frustrations we meet Delany Richardson, a budding writer and old friend of Stan's; John Snyder, a local musician; Brian Fetzler, Stan's stoner roommate; Dave Greibing, a mountain climber and Delany's ex-boyfriend; and Bridgette Jonsen, a former heroin addict and Dave's current girlfriend.
Successive sections of the novel focus on John's trip through Eastern Europe, Delany's summer in Alaska, Brian's life after college, Bridgette's road trip through Utah, Dave's ascent of Mt. Denali, and a tragic accident that illuminates their lives. Set in the verdant Pacific Northwest, the sandstone deserts of Utah, the gritty streets of Budapest, and the snow covered wasteland of Mt. Denali, Comfort Food is a literary work with an emphasis on the importance of human relationships and a sense of place.
In his inventive new novel Noah Ashenhurst creates a cast of characters--individuals--who are frustrated, isolated, enamored, addicted, connected, and finally redeemed. Blackshaw, Jane Marriott, , Tam is unhappy at home and often takes refuge in the ruins of Thowt It Farm. But then one day he is transported back to the Second World War. Alone and afraid, he makes friends with May, who has been rescued from a bombed-out house. She tries to persuade him to stay at the farm, but Tam is afraid of being trapped in the past forever. Financial statement and budget report: return to an order of the House of Commons dated 28 November : for copy of financial statement and budget report as laid before the House of Commons by the Chancellor of the Exchequer when opening the budget , , HM Treasury, , Psychic Or Psychotic?
Psychic or Psychotic? Memoirs of a Happy Medium is the true, frequently funny story of the author's struggle since childhood to appear "normal" while being bombarded with psychic information. She shares her dramatic near-death experience foretold in a dre Mountain Biking in McCall , , Stephen Stuebner, Roger Phillips, , Explosives Acts and , as Amended Health and Safety Executive, , Timmerman, , Like no book before it, Preachers of Hate uncovers an ancient hatred that threatens the life and livelihood of every American.
The new anti-Semitism targets not only Jews, but Americans specifically and the West in general. It targets our values, our lifestyle, and our freedoms. It is the single most important issue we face when trying to make sense of the Arab world. Most Americans will be stunned to discover the depth and extent of anti-Semitic hatred in todays Middle East and Europe, and that many Muslim leaders are not just encouraging it, but spending a great deal of money to spread the lies that spawned the terrorists responsible for the September 11 attack on America.
In Preachers of Hate, bestselling author Kenneth R. Timmerman who is not Jewish contends that, besides Islam itself, the core unifying force in the Muslim world is a virulent strain of anti-Semitism that postulates the existence of a Jewish conspiracy to take over the world. From the pulpits of fiery Muslim clerics to the Arab street, and to the highest reaches of government and state-sponsored media, there is a belief that this thousand-year-old conspiracy has already taken hold in America and is now, especially after the war in Iraq, about to do the same in the Middle East and beyond.
It is seen as no less than Muslims historical destiny to prevent such a takeover, and to do so by any means possible. To misunderstand the ferocity of that belief is to vastly underestimate the resolve of many Muslims to repel America, Israel, and all things Western. Timmerman explores the roots of this hatred, examining its history, the religious sources upon which it draws, and how it is being transmitted to young people growing up in Arab societies by their leaders, their teachers, and their mosques.
He documents how U. He exposes the double-talk of Arab leaders and their supporters in the West. As it so often was throughout history, this new strain of Jew hatred is really about much more than Jews. They get attacked first, when the enemies of America cant attack Americans. However, what begins with the Jews never ends with the Jews.
Is there a conspiracy between America and the Jews? Indeed there is: A common heritage, a dedication to improving the human condition through compassion and tolerance of differencesa conspiracy of freedom. And that is why they hate us. As with the Jews throughout history, America has been unfairly successful. As have the Jews, Americans have profited from the misery and poverty of others. If you hate Jews, you must also hate America. Such is the simple logic of the anti-Semite. Such, increasingly, is the logic of the Middle East.
It is a message that is reinforced day in and day out by the official government-sanctioned Arab media, from the streets of Egypt, London, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Paris, and Gaza, and in the mosques where impassioned clerics quote verbatim texts like the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a pillar of anti-Semitic hatred that originated in czarist Russia.
As America reasserts her role in the Middle East and attempts to bring peace between Jews and Arabs, Preachers of Hate is an essential book that reframes a very complicated issue as a matter of life and death. From the Hardcover edition. Handbook of Church Discipline, , , , , This is a handbook for pastors, elders, and all Christians who want to see how Scripture presents the process of discipline that should operate in the Christian community.
It was written in response to the various concerns that threaten to tear apart marriages, families, friendships, and congregations--concerns that call for a biblical approach to discipline that can heal fractures, restore right relationship, and ensure the health of the church. Developed around the five corrective steps found especially in Matthew , this book helps church leaders deal with the sorts of problems that require the church s disciplinary response.
Charting a course that combines discernment with appropriate action, this simple, readable handbook can have a profound effect on the community of believers. An essential reference for anyone contemplating a temporary or permanent teaching position in China. Also includes information on Taiwan and Hong Kong. In The Adapted Mind, Jerome Barkow, along with Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, set out to redefine evolutionary psychology for the social sciences and to create a new agenda for the next generation of social scientists.
While biologically oriented psychologists quickly accepted the work, social scientists in psychology and researchers in anthropology and sociology, who deal with the same questions of human behavior, were more resistant. Missing the Revolution is an invitation to researchers from these disciplines who, in Barkow's view, have been missing the great evolution-revolution of our time to engage with Darwinian thought, which is now so large a part of the non-sociological study of human nature and society.
The evolutionary perspective, Barkow maintains, provides no particular support for the status quo, no rationalizations for racism or any other form of social inequality. To marshal evidence for his argument, Barkow has gathered together eminent scholars from a variety of disciplines to present applications of evolutionary psychology in a manner intended to illustrate their relevance to current concerns for social scientists. The contributors include, among others, evolutionary psychologist Anne Campbell, a Darwinian feminist who reaches out to feminist social cosntructionists; sociologist Ulica Segarstrale, who analyzes the opposition of the "cultural left" to Darwinism; sociologist Bernd Baldus, who criticizes evolutionists for ignoring agency; criminologist Anthony Walsh, who presents a biosocial criminology; and primatologists Lars Rodseth and Shannon A.
Novak, who reveal an unexpected uniqueness to human social organization. Missing the Revolution is a challenge to scholars to think critically about a powerful social and intellectual movement which insists that the theoretical perspective that has been so successful when applied to the behavior of other animal species can be applied to our own. Not Out of Malawi , , Enid Waterfield, , Carolyn Mahaney identifies with the challenges facing women in todays world and meets them with the guidance of Gods Word.
The feminine virtues described in Titus 2 have transformed her life and the lives of countless other women.
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This book will show you the appeal of being a woman who lives for God and helps others do the same. Carolyns warm, practical, biblical, God-centered approach offers the mature mentoring that women of every age yearn for at times. For some, Feminine Appeal may be an excellent stand-in for the mentor they lack right now.
For others, it will wonderfully complement the relationship they have with an older friend of the Titus 2 sort. It's a godsend for both wives and their husbands. It gives women a clear vision of biblical femininity and shows men what to encourage their wives towards. Carolyn has been a friend and mentor to Shannon, and we're thrilled that through these pages she provides women of all ages the same honest, convicting, and hope-filled guidance.
Joshua and Shannon Harris, author of I Kissed Dating Goodbye Well give this book our ultimate endorsementwe have given it to all our married daughters!
Samor, Lord of the Bright City
Carolyn offers the kind of godly, seasoned counsel that is desperately needed by women today. She is practical, authentic, and biblically based. This book ought to be required reading for every womanmarried or single! Feminine Appeal has been the single most valuable book on Titus 2 living for women that I Connie have ever read. Bath science key stage 1 : teachers' resource pack : discovering science , , , X, Early Poems , , Robert Frost, X, These masterful and innovative volumes contain some of Frost's best and best-known poems.
Robert Faggen's introduction and notes reveal Frost's complex relation to modern and classical poetic traditions, his dialogue with science and philosophy, and his achievement of making each poem "a momentary stay against confusion. Blooming English , , Kate Burridge, , A collection of observations on the mysteries and intricacies of English generated from talkback calls to Kate's popular segment on Peter Clarke's evening program on 3LO.
Based on Kate Burridge's ABC Radio call-in show about language, this book reveals the seemingly limitless fascination English speakers have for the language and the joy with which we all work and play with it: punning; telling riddles; using slang, jargon, and secret languages; and examining, and arguing about usage. In Blooming English Kate Burridge not only answers the questions posed by her radio callers, she also deals with critical language topics such as word creation, meaning shifts, language change, colloquial vs.
Combines an impressive breadth and depth of learning with a common touch and a readable style. Wesley David Wesley Balderson, , Boraas, Siegfried H. Horn, , Rereading America remains the most widely adopted book of its kind because of its unique approach to the issue of cultural diversity. With extensive editorial apparatus that puts readings from the mainstream into conversation with readings from the margins, Rereading America provokes students to explore the foundations and contradictions of our dominant cultural myths.
The print text is now integrated with e-Pages for Rereading America, designed to take advantage of what the Web can do. The Adirondack Reader , , Paul F. Jamieson, Neal S. Burdick, X, Van der Loo, , A practical tutorial covering how to leverage RStudio functionality to effectively perform R Development, analysis, and reporting with RStudio.
The book is aimed at R developers and analysts who wish to do R statistical development while taking advantage of RStudio functionality to ease their development efforts. Familiarity with R is assumed. Those who want to get started with R development using RStudio will also find the book useful. Even if you already use R but want to create reproducible statistical analysis projects or extend R with self-written packages, this book shows how to quickly achieve this using RStudio. Tsumiki 2, , , Margaret Lee, Yuka Ito, , Tsumiki are ""building blocks,"" and this course for Grades is clearly structured around a logical sequence of sentence patterns that build on" With Child , , , , Photography from a master of human form, Howard Schatz In the brief months of a woman's pregnancy, the female form takes on a shape that has, for centuries, been a subject of artistic study.
Acclaimed photographer Howard Schatz has captured the biologic sculpture of the pregnant body with his eighteenth book, With Child. In her introduction to this monograph, renowned photography critic Vicki Goldberg writes, "In Schatz's studio, all subjects are transformed: one to alabaster; one to marble; another to bronze; one to an Arp; another to a dark etching, and still another to a fantastic zebra-like sculpture.
They serve as points of departure: what can the pregnant body be while it remains itself? Research on exemplary schools , , Gilbert R. Austin, , Crommelin, Robert D. Sindelar, , The field of pharmaceutical biotechnology is evolving rapidly. In addition, scientists are confronted with new technologies such as polymerase chain reactions, combinatorial chemistry and gene therapy. This introductory textbook provides extensive coverage of both the basic science and the applications of biotechnology-produced pharmaceuticals, with special emphasis on their clinical use.
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology serves as a complete one-stop source for undergraduate pharmacists, and it is valuable for researchers and professionals in the pharmaceutical industry as well. A Counterfeit Ferrari? Really Ned Pearson-wayward son of the New England investment-banking Pearson's-wants to comfort his aunt Blake over the death of her son Willie. But Ned-an international motor sports journalist and racing driver-just can't make sense out of aspects of Willie's death. Puzzled, Ned sets off down the long backtrail that led up to Willie's crash. Soon, he discovers that Willie was on a trail of his own, searching for unpleasant answers to dangerous questions.
Along the way, Ned begins to fall in love with his dead cousin's lovely and now very rich widow. But Ned Pearson has no idea that he is being drawn into the deadly crosshairs of those threatened by the truth he's seeking. Well-developed characters, each nicely flawed and very real. Solid scenes in an international travelogue. Crackling dialogue. Eli Hirsch has contributed steadily to metaphysics since his ground-breaking and much cited work on identity through time culminating in the OUP book The Concept of Identity.
Within the last 10 years, his work on realism and quantifier variance has been front-and-center in the minds of many metaphysicians. Metametaphysics, which looks at foundational questions about the very practice of metaphysics and the questions it raises, is now a popular area of discussion. There is a lot of anxiety about what ontology is, and Hirsch's diagnosis of how revisionary ontologists go wrong is one of the main views being discussed. This volume collects HIrsch's essays from the last decade with the exception of one article from on ontology and metametaphysics which are very much tied to these debates.
His essays develop a distinctive language-based argument against various anti-commonsensical views that have recently dominated ontology. All these views go astray, Hirsch says, by failing to interpret ordinary assertions about existence in a plausibly charitable way, so their philosophizing leads them to misuse language about ontology -- our ordinary concept of 'what exists' -- in favor of a position othat is quite different.
Hirsch will supply a new introduction. The volume will interest philosophers of metaphysics currently engaged in these debates. The book's author, Dr. Pinkerton Silverfish, doesn't look too perfect himself, In the picture on the back cover he's wearing a clown nose, and mustard is dripping down his chin. Milo figures the boor is worth a try anyway.
Perfect is obviously the perfect thing to be! But who's ever heard of wearing a stalk of broccoli around your neck for twenty-four hours? And that's only the first day Islamic Edicts: Fatwa. HL Bill 80 a , , , Great Britain. House of Lords, Great Britain. House of Commons,. It had been a family-owned business for over 50 years, until it was sold in to the Stagecoach Group, who retained Stephen Van Galder as president, under the Coach USA banner. The company operates school buses, coach charters, excursions, daily airport shuttles, and a regular service to downtown Chicago.
Vail: Triumph of a Dream , , Peter W. Seibert, , This beautifully illustrated Book tells how skiing champion Peter Siebert created a ski resort that became a model of its kind. Poetry The Warner Bros. Story , , Clive Hirschhorn,. Speeches , , Mark Twain, , Anima Sola: Hambre , , Pedro Cabiya, , This is the first book-length study of the history of language teaching and learning among South Asian Muslims. It looks at language teaching policies and texts to prove that they are meant to support certain ideologies which, in turn, support certain power structures.
It also argues that, in most cases, people learn language to empower themselves by equipping themselves for powerful jobs. Ray Atkins: paintings , , , , For years, The Thin Book and The Thin Book 2 have provided readers working on weight loss with inspiring messages to boost their sagging motivation. Now, readers can find both helpful resources in one compact, comprehensive guide. The first part is a topical guide to thin living that includes effective strategies and action plans for success.