They clearly helped overcome the most dangerous threats to the foundations of the German model, i. In this context, perhaps the most important long-run trends in the labor market are i wage moderation, ii increasing wage dispersion and segmentation and iii declining union coverage. All these trends started long before the Hartz process was initiated.
Rather than being caused by Agenda , they are related to factors such as technical progress, the re-organization of industrial production in an increasingly integrated world economy, and, finally, to the fall of the iron curtain. There is no doubt that these factors caused deep structural changes in the German economy. With respect to the fall of the iron curtain, at least three channels must be mentioned.
First, the opening to the East meant the emergence of low-wage countries like Hungary, Poland or the Czech Republic as direct neighbors of the German economy. The threat of the re-location of production sites substantially weakened the bargaining positions of workers and their unions. Second, the market potential of the German economy increased considerably. Third, the re-structuring process after re-unification—especially the collapse of manufacturing industries in East Germany—weakened overall union coverage in Germany.
Since then, the share of workers working under a general collective bargaining agreement has fallen at approximately equal rates in both parts of the country. As a result, in recent years, coverage of sectoral collective bargaining agreements has only been slightly above one-third in the East and one-half in the West.
As seen in the figure, the period of labor market reforms had neither a markedly negative nor positive influence on these trends. Coverage of collective bargaining agreements as a percentage of workers. Source: IAB. It is often argued that the importance of collective bargaining is de facto higher than what is reflected in these figures because in many cases, firms that do not fall under a collective bargaining scheme i.
Overall, however, the coverage of sectoral collective bargaining agreements is declining. This development, which is partly due to structural change in the economy, can be seen as an erosion of a key element of the German model. Several authors have addressed the fact that wage inequality has risen substantially in Germany over the last 2 or 3 decades see, for instance, Dustmann et al. This was true also for the equivalent measures of wage inequality in the lower and upper tails of the distribution, i.
Since then, wage inequality has followed a markedly upward trend. In the mids, the earnings of workers in the ninth decile were approximately 2. At the end of the observation period, the corresponding value was 3. Indicators of wage inequality among full-time workers aged 25—55 in West Germany, — decile ratios. Again, one can observe that this development is driven by higher decile ratios in the lower and upper tails of the distribution. It turns out that the increase in the extent and structure of wage inequality in East and West Germany during the post re-unification period is astonishingly similar.
Furthermore, the decile ratios for both tails of the distribution are approximately equal. Although the wage level is still different in both parts of the country, it seems that wage inequality has more or less converged. Indicators of wage inequality among full-time workers aged 25—55 in East Germany, — decile ratios. Indicators of wage inequality among full-time workers aged 25—55 by region —, decile ratios.
A further important aspect concerns the wage structure related to skill differentials. It turns out that until re-unification , real wages were increasing among all skill groups. In the first half of the nineties, real wages were stagnating among all groups. Since the mid-nineties however, the development of real earnings among the skill groups has clearly diverged.
Whereas workers with a university degree experienced sharp increases in their real earnings, the earnings of low skilled workers declined. This is especially true after For one and a half decades after , the real earnings of the intermediate skill group more or less stagnated, but then decreased as well. Hence, sizeable groups of workers suffered losses in real earnings, especially in the years after the labor market reforms. With stagnating or even declining real earnings among the majority of workers, unit labor costs have fallen considerably.
Real wage index by qualification type for full-time male workers aged 40 in West Germany, to At the same time, the share of low-wage earners increased markedly. The trend towards a higher share of low-pay employment has accelerated only to a certain extent since To sum up, it seems that the German economy has become much less egalitarian than it has been traditionally. The low-pay sector has risen dramatically, as noted by Rhein Almost a quarter of all employees received less than the low pay threshold of 9. According to Rhein , Germany has moved from being a country with intermediate earnings inequality to belonging to the group with the greatest levels of inequality in Europe.
If all employees are considered, the size of the low-pay sector even exceeds that of the United Kingdom. As mentioned in Sect. In a broad classification, the countries can be divided into three groups: i short-tenure countries like Australia, Canada and Denmark; ii an intermediate group including Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom; iii and long-tenure countries like Japan, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and France.
Note that the results for Germany in the s and early s are likely to be biased because German re-unification interrupted the careers of many East German workers. If this potential bias is taken into consideration, Germany clearly belongs to the high-tenure category of countries. In the German case, there was an overall upward trend in the share of the workforce with a long tenure. Hence, there is no indication that labor market reforms changed the fact that the German model relies on a significant part of the workforce experiencing a high level of job stability.
If anything, employment duration and tenure have increased, not decreased. A closer look at the empirical evidence shows, however, that this is not the case for all groups of workers. Especially for young workers in general and young low-skilled workers in particular, the average length of an employment spell has declined markedly. Share of the labor force employed for at least 10 years by country for different years, in calendar days. The median spell length is rather stable until the birth cohort of Since then, this indicator of employment stability has declined substantially.
While the median spell length was between and days among older cohorts, it declined to slightly above days for the cohorts born in and later. This development corresponds to a decline of roughly one-third. It should be stressed that cohorts born in the mid-sixties reached the age of 30 in the mids. Hence, the trend towards a decline in job quality for young workers had already started well before the implementation of the labor market reforms.
Note that the mean length of employment spells is below the median shown in Fig. This indicates a lot of probability mass at very short spells. Length of employment spells for different birth cohorts of workers below the Age of They find that especially among low-skilled workers, the average length of an employment spell has decreased considerably.
The authors also exclude the possibility that higher job instability is attributable to an increase in instances of voluntary job termination. A further change in the structure of the German labor market is related to the rising share of non-standard employment. Non-standard employment comprises part-time and minor employment as well as employment with all types of fixed-term contracts. It should be emphasized that not all forms of non-standard employment imply low-quality jobs.
For example, part-time work might be voluntarily chosen for family reasons. The same applies to some fixed-term contracts when they correspond to the preferences of workers. In general, however, non-standard employment is more likely to be associated with low job quality. For the youngest age group, the share of standard employment contracts almost halved from the beginning of the s to the latest period.
For prime-age employees age 25—49 , the shrinking share of standard employment accelerated slightly in the s, whereas this is not the case for older workers. Looking at the skill level, there is a clear indication that the increase in non-standard employment is highly concentrated among low-skilled workers. This might also be due to the de-regulation over the course of the labor market reforms. Overall, one can conclude that the creeping process of erosion in standard employment was not initiated by the Agenda policy during the period from to However, some of the elements of the reform have favored this development.
Share of standard employment contracts in total employment by age and skill groups percentage. Assessing labor market performance in general, it is fair to recognize the sizeable merits of the reform efforts. These statements are partly at odds with the conclusion of a widely recognized recent study:. Further, while the focus of the reforms was on creating incentives for seeking employment, they did little to support the remarkable wage restraint witnessed since the mids, which is the key factor in explaining the gain in competitiveness Dustmann et al.
As I argued above, it is true that wage restraint and the increase in wage dispersion started well before the labor market reforms, approximately What Dustmann et al. The change in competitiveness has been occurring gradually since the mids, but for 10 years or so, no successes were apparent in the labor market.
Yet it should be emphasized that the timing of the German labor market reforms was well-chosen because they occurred during a period of an expansionary world market. My reading of the facts is that the combination of the structural reforms with the external boom helped to over-come the most dangerous threat to the foundations of the German model, i. Although not all parts of the reform process were well designed, the Agenda policy sharpened awareness that the acceptance of various forms of flexibility for firms to cushion against external economic shocks is mutually advantageous to employers and employees.
This relates to working time and working-time accounts as well as remuneration schemes. Especially in the export-oriented manufacturing sector, these new forms of flexibility improved responsiveness to market signals and reinforced the effects of the long period of wage moderation on international competitiveness.
Hence, one salient feature of the German model—its export-orientation based on a strong manufacturing sector—was even strengthened by the effects of the reform. The stress test of the reforms came with the Great Recession. The German economy passed this test in an impressive way. Flexibility within firms and strong labor relations based on the social partnership were the key to understanding the mechanisms responsible for what has been called the German labor market miracle. At the same time, the financial sustainability of the social security system was secured.
The wide acceptance of working-time and wage flexibility during the crisis can hardly be understood without the behavioral changes brought about by the reforms. Several salient features of the German model—like the dual training system, long-tenures of prime-age skilled workers or well-functioning social partnership—were not negatively affected by the reforms.
In particular, the system of labor relations is still rather distinct from that of the Anglo-Saxon approach. In the light of the presented evidence, the Hartz reforms did not destroy the German model. However, it has undergone transformations and there are aspects of these that could be seen as representing the creeping erosion of some of its cornerstones.
It would therefore be wrong to sweep the challenges to the German model under the rug. These challenges relate to the decline in the importance of collective bargaining agreements, growing labor market segmentation and increase in wage inequality. They are due to long-run trends that had already started in the s or even before. At most, the labor market reforms have led to a certain acceleration of these erosion processes, such as the increase in atypical employment among certain groups. The reform process might be blamed, however, for ignoring and not counter-acting the erosion of some of the fundamentals of the German model.
This raises the question of whether there is some scope for the reform process to be rectified. In other words, we can ask whether the trends in segmentation and inequality can be reversed without jeopardizing the obvious employment-related successes of the reforms. The main element of the German model that was allegedly weakened by the reforms is social cohesion and solidarity. Traditionally, the German economy ran successfully with a rather low level of earnings inequality. At the same time, at least the important group of trained workers enjoyed a comfortable social security network.
Today, workers are in much greater danger of losing their social status within a quite short period of time. Given the regulatory framework in place after the reforms, they are much more pressed to accept unfavorable working conditions and low-paid jobs. Wage inequality has risen sharply. Furthermore, social permeability has decreased over the years. Among recent criticisms of the German system, the education inheritance Bildungsvererbung is of major concern.
The job and income risks borne by specific groups, namely the young and the low skilled, also seem to be increasing. Overall, this has favored segmentation tendencies in society. Insofar as segmentation leads to the erosion of social cohesion and solidarity, a cornerstone of the German model is affected.
This should seriously be taken into account. With respect to the struggle against inequality, there are two controversial positions in the discussion about Germany. The first position claims that the marked increase of the low-wage sector was necessary to place less-productive workers in jobs. This strategy was largely successful and explains the upward trend in the German employment rate in the last years.
In this view, strengthening egalitarianism would cost jobs. In contrast, the second position is based on the assertion that the marked increase of the low-wage sector was not necessary to improve the labor market situation of the least advantaged. The reform process was deficient insofar as it did not counteract this unintended outcome. As a consequence, measures to reduce the marked increase in inequality are indicated.
There is some truth to both positions. On the one hand, this result at least weakens the position that lower wages were fully necessary to bring low-productivity workers into jobs, because some workers who were employed also suffered from lower wages. This inequality is not related to productivity, but is caused more by market power and other market imperfections. In light of this discussion, is seems that what is necessary is not a reversal of the reform process but a further, prudent and gradual development of reforms.
The segmentation and inequality issues have to be addressed without throwing the baby out with the bathwater, i. Adequate measures should include all efforts to enhance qualification among the disadvantaged and the labor market integration of the long-term unemployed. The introduction of a statutory minimum wage on January 1, , was helpful in mitigating the inequality trend, but possible disemployment effects should be monitored carefully.
To summarize, the German labor market reforms were a necessary painful cure to stop the harmful trend of increasing systemic unemployment. However, their negative side effects should not to be overlooked. Mitigating the damage that increasing segmentation has inflicted on the German model will pose an important challenge in the future. Die Charakteristika, die das Modell Deutschland bestimmen, umfassen eine Vielzahl von Dimensionen, die auch teilweise untereinander in Wechselbeziehung stehen.
Der aktiven Arbeitsmarktpolitik kommt eine vergleichsweise wichtige Rolle zu. Allerdings sind gewisse Erosionserscheinungen des deutschen Modells zu konstatieren. Im Unterschied zu einem weit verbreiteten Vorurteil zeigen die empirischen Fakten aber, dass diese Erosionserscheinungen nicht durch die Hartz-Reformen verursacht wurden. So steigt die Lohnspreizung bereits seit etwa Mitte der er Jahre und die Tarifabdeckung folgt einem langfristig sinkenden Trend.
Das deutsche Modell ist somit keineswegs abgewickelt worden, sondern im Kern weiterhin sehr lebendig. Dennoch sollte die schleichenden Erosionserscheinungen durch wachsende Segmentation und Lohnungleichheit nicht verharmlost werden. See, for instance, Thelen , p.
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In this context, de- commodification can be understood as the establishment of social institutions that are not governed by market processes. Moreover, the author sees a strong commitment to the preservation of traditional family patterns in this regime. In this context, the use of simple corporatism indicators in a cross-section has been criticized by Burda , among others. This point has already been stressed by the profound analysis of the differences between the German and U.
A possible explanation for the poor development of services might be that product market regulation has played a role in the German context. In a theoretical model, Blanchard and Giavazzi show interdependencies between product and labor market regulations. There might be reinforcement and mitigation effects with an ambiguous influence of institutional settings. I am grateful to Michael Burda for pointing me to this aspect. For example, the concept of the so-called Personal Service Agencies Personal-Service-Agenturen, PSA was not properly thought through and turned out to be a relatively expensive and inefficient instrument in practice.
The idea was that public employment agencies should engage in the temporary hiring-out of otherwise unemployed workers. Her daughter, who was 4 when Schneider died, insisted her mother went to the spa every year simply to recover and lose weight. Zum 2. Elbphilharmonie Hamburg. Das Schiff scheint jedem Wetter zu trutzen — nichts kann es zum Kentern bringen.
Robert Arlinghaus | IGB
Unser Konzert war im grossen Saal, in dem sich Meer- und Wasser fortsetzten. Auf dem Programm stand das Ensemble Resonanz. Nicht nur der Gesangstimme, sondern auch der politischen Stimme, die, wie er betonte, wichtiger denn je ist, zu erheben und zu artikulieren. Das Publikum klatschte begeistert. Dennoch ein wunderbares Erlebnis. Meine kleine Wohnung im 5. Wie zu erwarten, wollte Brecht nicht nach der Pfeife der Produzenten tanzen und die Verhandlungen als Beispiel kapitalistischer Ausnutzung anprangern. Das hat er erreicht. Am Ende ist man froh, dass alles vorbei ist, aber man ist auch froh, den Film gesehen zu haben, ein Kapitel in der Geschichte der Dreigroschenoper, das zugleich ein bedeutendes Kapitel in der deutschen Geschichte ist.
Die spannende, unglaubliche Geschichte wurde von Disney vor 30 Jahren verfilmt und konnte erst jetzt, nach Ablauf der Rechte, als deutscher Film auf die Leinwand kommen. Aber nichts ist gut, was dieser bemerkenswerte Film deutlich zeigt. Alle sind jetzt Rentner, viele nach einer Lehrerkarriere. The City Without Jews, an Austrian silent film from that predicts the rise of nazism, has, after 90 years, been saved from decay. Die Stadt ohne Juden, a satire about the acutely topical subject of anti-semitism, not only shows the economic circumstances that led to a flaring up of political antisemitism but also plays very prophetically, using stereotypes and caricatures, through the consequences of a rapid exodus of the Jewish population of Vienna.
It is the end of the first world war, inflation is soaring and the inhabitants of a German-speaking city are starting to turn on each other. The economy declines to such an extent that the parliament votes to invite the Jews back. The premiere took place on 25 July in Vienna. Bettauer and H. Breslauer, the director, fell out entirely, and Bettauer later refused to acknowledge any connection between the film and his book. National Socialists often sabotaged the screenings; in Linz the film was banned altogether. In March he was assassinated in Vienna by a Nazi Party member who was convicted of murder but released from jail shortly thereafter.
He joined the Nazi Party in and died impoverished in in Salzburg. Without the Jews to blame, the Nazi party collapses; the expulsion law is repealed, and the Jews are welcomed back by the mayor of Vienna. Traveling from one place to the next by bus or train or bike was doable but better would be a place with several screens in addition to Castro and Roxie and Victoria functioning as home of the festival. I saw a dozen or so films, most of them small foreign productions that might not find a distributor in the US.
At the center of the film is a young woman working by day as telemarketer for a scam operation and in her spare time she cheats old ladies out of their savings. Police in riot gear mill around doing spot checks here and there. Soulless office interiors, modernist architecture, generic plazas are the backdrop for conversations that focus on numbers, passwords and wifi codes.
The filmmaker portrays his country as a grey, cold, utterly alienating place that, according to annual surveys, is among the happiest in the world. No dialogue except for the snippets that go with the scenes. Perhaps inspired by THE CLOCK, a twelve-hour- masterpiece tightly composed around the moving hands of the clock the stars in this film are not structured by anything. Nothing is holding the 99 minutes together, the film could as well have ended after 20 or so minutes without having lost any impact. And my farm life was a bit more joyful — my father did not pressure his three girls no boy, alas to take over the farm.
The matriarch is a colorful older woman who is able to let go of what she loves most in a dramatic finale. A beautiful old mansion in a fishing village on the outskirts of the city is about to fall into the hands of real estate developers. But that is only one of the many storylines that are neither developed nor well acted in this pretentious film that has one thing going for it: amazing cinematography by Christopher Doyle. I just visited the island in February see on my blog a bit further down when it was cold and snowing as in this film.
Deserted landscapes not even sheep just a few horses when I was there. A stilted meditation in black and white on nature, mankind, animals and industrial waste. In search for his father he has never known Miguel leaves Lisbon for Cape Verde where he encounters a rich melange of faces culminating in an old farmwoman who lives with her goats in the middle of nowhere. Beautiful landscapes and intoxicating music for a roadmovie that did not need a detailed script with a cheeky ending: in real life the protagonist had found his father but in the film he ended up becoming a father.
Finally a few comments about films that will be or are already released in the US.
She gladly takes the role of his muse and erotic ideal as she finds his grumpiness charming and his intelligence sexy. Louis Garrel, a formidable actor, plays Godard expertly with a slight lisp, big glasses that keep breaking as a running joke, with monologues about marxism and the end of filmmaking under capitalism Cannes was cancelled in , he is jealous, possessive, domineering even melodramatic when his wife is ready to leave him.
A biopic of Godard with satirical touches more suitable for SNL than for a cultural hero who is searching for answers to the political urgency of the time. Not true. All characters communicate with each other via phone or email, never in person, and to accelerate the plot TV commentators take over occasionally.
A gimmick that works for a while but then needs a boost, like a thriller story, to carry the viewer through minutes. A father is looking for his 16 year old daughter who disappeared suddenly. Lots of twists and very unexpected turns will keep young audiences, thrilled by this innovative approach to filmmaking, glued to the screen. Done through outsourcing by Filipinos who are not allowed to identify themselves or their work places, the job is grueling.
Many suffer from PTSD, get paid minimum wage and no benefits. Did Mark Zuckerberg see the film? It was sent to him before the premiere in Sundance with a request for comment that was supposed to be read at the screening. But FB did not sent a reply. Is our addiction to the screen and to the thrill that comes from violent images beyond repair? Can the genie be pushed back into the bottle or will our children and grandchildren will live with the damage being done daily?
The five Oscar nominated foreign films are by veteran directors who dig deep into the social and political faultlines of their country but what they find at home feels eerily familiar anywhere. The films are depressing, shocking, touching, fascinating and certainly worth seeing, all of them. In LOVELESS the unwanted and unloved son becomes an unwitting witness of his belligerent parents quarreling over the question where to dump him — perhaps at the equally disdainful grandmother — when they sell the home and move in with their lovers.
Differences between organized and nonorganized anglers in an urban environment Berlin, Germany and the social capital of angler organizations. Code of practice for recreational fisheries. Johnson, C.
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IAHR, Madrid, In: C. Steinberg, W. Calmano, H. Wilken Hrsg. Ecomed, Landsberg am Lech, 44 S. Fish and Fisheries Den Angler an die Angel nehmen. Nachhaltiges Binnenfischereimanagement. In: Leibniz Gemeinschaft Hrsg. Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz e. Characteristics of anglers living in the metropolitan area of Berlin Germany : implications for urban fisheries management and research. In Coleman, A. Engelhardt, C. Brunke, R. In: Geller, W. Teubner GmbH, Stuttgart, Jankowitsch, O. Arlinghaus , K. Die Neustrukturierung des Berliner fischereilichen Studienganges.
Mehner, C. Rennert, M. Eine Aufforderung an die deutsche Binnenfischerei. Arlinghaus, C. Johnsson, J. I, Hindar, K. The need to manage salmonid invasions in Europe to protect native biodiversity. Policy Brief of the SalmoInvade Project. Pita, P. Strukturierende Faktoren der litoralen Fischartengemeinschaft angelfischereilich bewirtschafteter Baggerseen in Niedersachsen. Potsdam-Sacrow 24, pp. Wichmann, T. Hiller, R. Landesanglerverband Mecklenburg-Vorpommern e. Analyzing selection pressures on adaptive life-history traits in fish populations exploited by anglers: model development and application to reproductive investment in a simulated pike Esox lucius fishery.
Volksmeinung: was geht, was nicht geht. Blinker, 3, Barschangeln im Dienste der Wissenschaft. Vom Elfenbeinturm ins Anglerheim. Verbundjournal, Wiegner, K. AFZ-Fischwaid, 4, Schlauer Karpfen, dummer Hecht? Wege zur nachhaltigen Angelei. Jugendpfleger mit Widerhaken. Dauerkonflikt zwischen der Berufs- und Angelfischerei am Beispiel des Barschangelns. Wirksamkeit von Fortbildungen zu Fischbesatz unter Anglern. Fischer und Angler, 3, Fischbesatz: 10 Regeln, auf die man beim Fischbesatz achten sollte.
Tiere und Menschen in Echtzeit erforschen. Jahresforschungsbereicht IGB, Immer weniger Angler in Berlin. Anglern in Nordostdeutschland: Wissenschaftlich auf der Spur. Angeln in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 3, AFZ - Fischwaid, 1, Jahresforschungsbericht IGB, Entnahmefenster: legal oder illegal? Angler sind wie Fussballfans. Was Brutpflege mit Unfangbarkeit zu tun hat. Was hat Angeln mit Charles Darwin zu tun?
Hakvermeidung von Schuppen- und Spiegelkarpfen wissenschaftlich untersucht. Carp Connect, Ausgabe 56, IGB Jahresforschungsbericht , S. Cyrus, T. Rapp, J. Die Sache mit dem Sack. Anglerwissen aus der Forschung. Fisch und Fang 53 6 : Fisch und Fang 53 3 Robert Arlinghaus. Anglerverhalten und optimales Fischereimanagement. Fischverhalten und Fitness. Cyrus, G. Verbundjournal, Ausgabe 84, S.
IGB-Jahresforschungsbericht , S. Verbundjournal, Ausgabe 81, S. Fladung, E. Quo vadis Angelfischerei auf Aal. Jahresforschungsbericht Arlinghaus, R , T. Kobler, A. Der Raubfisch, 5, Neumann, R. One world, one pike. Boilie versus Tigernuss: Ein Vergleich mit Chancengleichheit. Carp Connect, Nr. Angler am Haken der Wissenschaft: Teil 1 Demographie. Auf Wiedersehen. Carp Connect Nr. Plickat, Modernes Karpfenangeln. Kosmos Verlag, Stuttgart, Carp Mirror Nr und Richtigstellung in Nr.
Carp Mirror Nr. Ist das Karpfenangeln noch zu retten? Wieso, Weshalb, Warum. Teil 4. Teil 3. Teil 2. Teil 1. Boilies hausgemacht. Karpfenscene Nr. Ein Karpfen packt aus. Diplomatie und Karpfenangeln — ein Widerspruch der keiner ist. Breadcrumb Home People Robert Arlinghaus. Research Group Leader. Profile Working group.
Integrative Recreational Fisheries Management. Baggersee Promotion of biodiversity and ecosystem services in small gravel pits through implementation of habitat-oriented management practices in recreational-fisheries management. Contact person. Besatzfisch 2. AQUATAG Spatio-temporal high-resolution analysis of water-based recreational activities, resulting impacts and conflicts of use, as well as derivation of a socio-ecological management concept. B-Types When individuals within populations differ among each other in their behavioural type, what are the consequences for individuals, communities and population management?
Steven J. Cooke; William M. Twardek; Andrea J. Reid; Robert J. Lennox; Sascha C. Danylchuk; Jacob W. Brownscombe; Shannon D. Journal of Fish Biology. Environmental Management. Honsey; Alexander D. Wilson; Robert Arlinghaus. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. DTU Aqua-rapport ; Robert Arlinghaus; Joshua K. Abbott; Eli P.
Fenichel; Stephen R. Carpenter; Len M. Cooke; Ray Hilborn; Olaf P. Jensen; Michael J. Wilberg; John R. Post; Michael J. Monk; Mara E. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Howard I. Browman; Steven J. Cooke; Ian G. Cowx; Stuart W. Don Stevens; Craig A. Watson; Robert Arlinghaus. Conservation Biology. Christopher E. Pullen; Robert Arlinghaus; Robert J. Lennox; Steven J. Fisheries Research. Jacob W.