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Gallen, HSG St. Gallen Glauber, Hans ed. Gallen, VGS Verlagsgenossenschaft Lucerne, Interact Verlag , p. Munich, DJI-Reihe , p. The cardboard boxes filled with beer bottles were stacked in a pyramid with uniform steps. Exhibition visitors could walk onto, occupy and drink from the sculpture made of beer crates. With the exhibition title: The Recovery of Discovery, and with a UNESCO logo on the invitation card, the French artist Cyprien Gaillard raised the question about the historical images that are currently being produced in Berlin through concepts of musealization.

The work made reference to the relations of import and export and the culture of the spectacle that accompanied the excavation of the Pergamon Altar, the construction of the museum and the Master Plan Museum Island The installation makes reference to the connection between cultural tourism and consumption and to the branding of Berlin as a hip art metropolis.

A study from revealed that the proportion of museum visitors among the city tourists has multiplied in the past ten years. This has cost the highly indebted city around million euros. In the aim of uniting and presenting all archaeological collections together on the Museum Island was already formulated in the concept of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. In the Museum Island planning group was established.

Under the aegis of David Chipperfield Architects, various architecture offices were subsequently commissioned to develop restoration and usage for the individual buildings. In the future, the island in the Spree River, which spans close to one square kilometre, is to. According to the website of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, the thematic band connecting the cultures of the ancient occidental world is to be made experienceable for the exhibition visitors.

Pergamon was an ancient Greek city near the western coast of Asia Minor. Today it is called Bergama and is situated in Turkey. Since there has been an archaeological museum there that now collects together the finds from the excavations of the ancient city. Until the outbreak of the First World War, a large part of the excavations at Bergama were sent to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, which was built specifically for this purpose, while only a small part came to the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul, which opened in Later, he attended the Building-Academy in Berlin, where he learned how to draw based on ancient models.

Seeing Hitler’s Germany

In Humann travelled to Constantinople to realise projects for the Ottoman government such as the detailed mapping of Palestine part of the Ottoman Empire since the 16th century and of the eastern Balkans. Since he had already participated in excavations on the island of Samos and with the help of a small expedition, he was able to find two fragments of a frieze, which he then sent to Berlin to be examined. Based on an agreement with the Ottoman government, the finds from the excavations at Pergamon could be transported to Berlin via Hamburg.

The Pergamon Museum in Berlin was built for the purpose of competing with the Parthenon frieze of the London British Museum, already in its first version and also in the second version of the building — and between and The early Enlightenment had already imagined antiquity as the ideal societal form. Since the 18th century, European ancient historians and orientalists had gone on study trips to the ancient cities of Italy, Greece and Asia Minor, this gave rise to a sort of early form of tourism.

Ancient sites were visited, drawn and copied. A longing for antiquity had already existed in the Renaissance and Baroque period, but it bloomed as a German ideal in the context of building a nation-state and the aesthetic movement of classicism. Through the Berlin Congress of , the Prussian military missions and the participation in the construction of the Bagdad Railway, the German Empire had become a central political partner for the Ottoman sultan. The project led not only to Germany and Turkey edging closer to each other, but also to Great Britain, France and Russia. These alliances resulted in expanding the spheres of influence of the territorial occupations in the Balkans, North Africa and the Middle East and were crucial factors leading to the outbreak of the First World War.

This simultaneously propelled the territorial expansion of the colonial powers and the consequent travel as early forms of cultural tourism. Such unusual agreements were only possible, however, because the Middle East was an Ottoman colonial territory. In contrast, for the nationalistic self-staging of the German Empire, as a place of occidental high culture, the archaeological finds were sought-after requisites.

The construction of roads and railways, the longing for antiquity, travels to the orient and excavations were therefore constitutive of modernity. In its restaging in the 21st century, it is not only disregarded but rewritten. The Pergamon panorama — as it is stated in the press release — is to become the highlight of the current exhibition season. A platform in the middle of the panorama acts as a viewing deck and provides an overview for visitors. Before panoramas became popular pictorial means in the 19th century, they were already used as a geographical form of representation alongside maps, reliefs and profiles.

The panorama, as a popular cultural staging of the 19th century, easily fits in with the image and museum politics of the 21st century. The latter, the fabric facade, hung there until a resolution from the Bundestag decided on the demolition of the Palace of the Republic and the reconstruction of the Berlin City Palace facade, despite protests by the population. Yet officially, one hears little about the problematic symbolic power of the Berlin City Palace in the history of the German authoritarian state. The first collections of the Ethnological Museum are from the cabinet of rarities and wonders of the 17th-century Electors of Brandenburg.

Thomas or in Mauretania. Most of these areas were ceded to other European colonial powers at the beginning of the First World War in or afterwards in Instead, otherness is ontologised, serving to demonstrate the sovereignty and cosmopolitanism of the exhibiting nations. Many of them did not survive the transport or the slavery. May Ayim was an activist of the Afro-German movement. Initiatives have emerged from local community work and the movement of the history workshops of the s that understand urban space as a location of historiography and intervene on site with mobile exhibitions.

Yet today, this has also become — not only in Kreuzberg-Friedrichshain — part of a mediation strategy of official city and state politics and substantially contributes to the booming cultural tourism. In parallel, historical references in contemporary art — e. Due to this historicization and musealization trend of the past 30 years, the question as to who writes history and what is described, what is to be protected and what to be destroyed, has become an antagonistic field, in which increasingly heated debates between hegemonic and marginal narratives and actors are being, and must be, held.

When I look out the window of my flat in Kreuzberg in the evening, I see a flow of young hostel guests and newcomers to Berlin crossing the Oberbaum Bridge with beer bottles in their hands. During some nights, the noise of shattering bottles keeps me awake. During the day, visitors from all over the world stroll through the neighbourhood and marvel at multiculturalism, they eat Indian food and view the last fragment of the Berlin Wall on the other side of the Spree River. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the construction of the Wall, an exhibition in public space reminds viewers that prior to children playing on the river bank on the western Kreuzberg side and people attempting to flee to the west from the Friedrichshain side drowned due to the unclear responsibilities regarding the Spree.

Posters convey to the Berlin tourists that the metro line ended at Schlesisches Tor and that this part of the city was a dead end. It is not related what this meant for the city district. There was hardly a West Berliner who wanted to move here after , after it became a border area. In the s, the city government supported the influx of labourers — mainly from Turkey — to districts close to the sector border such as Kreuzberg 36 or Wedding.

Due to the location of the area and the low rents, an alternative living space evolved on the island of West Berlin. Young Berliners and men who moved here did not have to do military service. This special status of West Berlin was, on one hand, an effect of the construction of the Wall, on the other hand, it is due to the continuing absence of a peace treaty. The memorial plaques do not mention this.

Marion von Osten is an artist, author and exhibition organiser. From — professor at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna. Kunze, Max: Der Pergamonaltar. Seine Geschichte, Entdeckung und Rekonstruktion. Mainz, Mainz, [] Bredekamp, Horst: Antikensehnsucht und Maschinenglaube. Die Geschichte der Kunstkammer und die Zukunft der Kunstgeschichte. Berlin, Bochum, Corrigan, H.

Van Laak, Dirk: Imperiale Infrastruktur. Paderborn, Beirut, Deutsche Eisenbahngeschichte im Vorderen Orient. Nuremberg, , p. These travel activities mainly consisted in educational and research trips. The orientalistic fixation on Mediterranean, Arabian and Asian building cultures included not only the architecture of the rulers but also profane building ensembles and vernacular structures that went on to have a decisive influence on modernism.

In young Le Corbusier, as many before him, had gone on a Grand Tour of Italy, Greece and Asia Minor marking the start of his travel activities and vernacular urban research. Aesthetics of the Past. Rebellions for the Future. London, Reconsidering non western references for modern architecture in a cross-cultural perspective Neue Berner Schriften zur Kunst, Vol. Bern, Leipzig , p. The reconstruction became a transnational endeavour of high political status in which the United Nations were involved. Koldewey counts not only as the decisive archaeologist for the excavations of the brick fragments of the walls of the Ishtar Gate and the Procession Way in front of it — today still standing at the Kupfergraben in Berlin — but also as the founder of modern historical construction research.

He was in close exchange with the director of the Hamburger Kunsthalle, Alfred Lichtwark, who was instrumental in asserting modern art in Germany. Berlin, , p. Die brandenburgisch-preussische Kolonie Grossfriedrichsburg in Westafrika []. Studien zu Rassismus in Deutschland. This is how Heinrich von Kleist, who in shot himself on the shore of the Wannsee because of lovesickness, describes the desert surrounding the big city. Sandy ground, grit box, no-go area for foreigners, 1 it is said in the metropolis, that it is as if the Brandenburg variant of a spaghetti western were on display there.

Even Tropical Islands: forward looking and equipped with a pluralistic calling for new offshoots, is by no means secure. Prince Frederick Arthur von Homburg passes out. Brand in Brandenburg. Minutes before arriving one can already see the hangar. The platforms of the stop in Brand — I was there for the first time during the Football World Cup — were currently being renovated, but the station always appears as if it were permanently closed. The stop was once built in the middle of the forest and was used to transport wood. Every half hour a bus waits to transfer guests free of charge.

Across the new bridge, which connects Tropical Islands with the nearby motorway to Berlin, Dresden and Cottbus, a straight track leads to the turn-off. In its last phase, this used to be a prohibited military zone, a no-go area governed by the Soviets. The former CargoLifter assembly hall for the gigantic airship is situated in the middle of a huge cleared area.

A spacious access system with car parks laid out for large crowds leads to the entrance hidden behind the hall. Here, one can discern artificial hills at the edge of the forest; grass-covered bunkers for military jets. The double runways disappear behind a curvature in the landscape in the direction of the railway track. Apart from that, the former military grounds are entirely cleared of so-called hazardous waste. For this purpose the Federal State of Brandenburg performed preliminary work such as the large-scale removal of ammunition rests, scrap and kerosene tanks, after the Red Army no longer had the status of an occupying force and withdrew eastwards to the crumbling CIS.

The decontaminated area appears to lack a history, since its origin during the Cold War can hardly be detected. The entrance of Tropical Islands makes an oddly banal impression at first sight: the front hall is an empty field, then a deserted information stand on the Spreewald, the old model of the CargoLifter hall and a few seating arrangements.

While changing, I hear a family next to me speak Polish — or is it the Slavonic Sorbian that some people can still speak in the Lusatia region? How large is the area served, anyway? The border to Poland is not very far. In reality though, the visitors on weekends, extra days off between holidays and during the holiday season seem to come from Berlin and Saxony. One has to walk all the way around a hill in the centre covered with all kinds of tropical plants to finally access the changing rooms beneath it.

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The changing rooms look like a car park or the data centre of a bank, with their sparse furnishing and the rows of more than 6, lockers. Then you go one storey higher through a school stairwell and here you can look down on the large lake from the gallery. This is where the swimming pool of my youth ends and an adventure bath begins — except that. We immediately get lost in the rainforest, where the paths are laid out like spaghettis to reach a total length of one kilometre.

There are slightly muted chirps and cries from loudspeakers. The sprinklers of the automatic trickling installation can also be clearly seen. In the Federal State of Brandenburg had provided 15 million Euros as additional promotion funds for them. In the 17th and 18th centuries, due to the major settlement undertakings of the kings Frederick Wilhelm I. This was not always met with approval from those already living there, whom, as opposed to the new settlers, received no further preferential treatment.

In the beginning, the new settlers and adventurers arrived in a barren region and this was why many soon left again. They lived in wooden shacks, the undeveloped land resembled a primeval forest and there were no paths or bridges. On the other hand, the local population — although it was banned from doing so — also sought new land here and settled secretly.

The sandy heath land was already developed, so that only the swampy Spree valleys and the shaggy state forests remained as settlement areas. The pioneering work in the Spree forests entailed extreme manual labour.


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Areas had to be cleared, log cabins were built as rough dwellings and areas of arable land needed to be developed and elevated in order to protect them against floods. It was only as late as the 19th century that a system of paths and bridges were put in place; until then, one balanced over lying tree trunks and transported livestock and belongings on Spreewald barges, which are now used for tourists. Since everything had to be brought there from elsewhere, the Spreewald settlers were largely self-sufficient. Visiting school was also not conceivable due to the long distances, but also because the children were required for their labour.

If one cycles along the former military route, passing by empty residential buildings, to the other side of the formerly closed-off area, to Krausnitz, the lower Spreewald is not far away. During the time of travel restrictions, GDR citizens spent substitute holidays here. It was hard, the oxen barely got any further. Then the devil took his hat and angrily flung it at the oxen.

In fright they jumped this way and that — and for this reason the Spree River is so crooked and branched today. It frequently occurred that the river, along with it its numerous arms, broke its banks twice a year, flooding large areas. Therefore, in the wake of the increased utilization of the inner Spreewald, a dense network of canals and fortified trenches were built, within the course of two centuries. If required, branch canals were used as water arteries to economically develop the land.

Wetlands were eliminated and forests which were difficult to access had to be thinned in order to improve the hydrological conditions. In the s, more than weirs and dam plants were built, arranged in so-called dam belts. At the same time, the inhabitants of the Spreewald began excluding large areas from the original lowland by building flood protection dikes and flow-around weirs, and intensively using these areas for agriculture. These measures, comparable with the polders in the Netherlands, were continued in the GDR and lasted until the s.

South of the Spreewald, the lignite mines built since the s led to an additional and significant intervention in the landscape and also affected the water routes. To develop the open cast mines, more than villages or parts of villages were excavated, most of them populated by Sorbs. Now this hard graft can be experienced as leisuretime fun: The international building-show: SEE 4 fills flooded lignite pits to form an extensively arranged water landscape.

The biosphere reserve Spreewald is artificially maintained by the re-cultivation of meadows, marshland and stretches of running water. More than new measures are planned until , costing close to 7 million euros. While in earlier times nature had to be harnessed, it is now to be converted in a further step to its alleged original state. Once the biggest problem were the unpredictable floods, today it is the lack of water. From the s into the s, huge amounts of groundwater were pumped off and conducted away via the Spree River to drain the lignite mines in Lusatia.

The pits of the disused surface mines are presently being transformed into tourist landscapes and filled with water diverted from the Spree River. The dam belts are able. But especially during dry periods the flow rates, which once cleaned the inshore waters in a natural way, have declined considerably. Today, thirteen dam attendants see to it that the water levels at the weirs are maintained. Even the former wealth of fish — years ago the burbot, as a typical running water species, was cheaper than bread — must be upheld by additional fish stock.

The town of Schlepzig 5 is the tourist centre of the lower Spreewald. Two-language town signs and signposts indicate that Sorbian Wendish was once spoken here. Here, Brandenburg was an interior foreign country that at least in the 16th century still acted extraterritorially. Along with the industrialisation starting in , the Sorbian language receded and was judged as a sign of backwardness and poverty.

The tropics, in sometimes bitterly cold Brandenburg, waste just as much energy as the ski runs7 in the Arabian Desert. While the muggy and hot summer in Dubai can hardly be endured without artificial paradises, the winter in eastern Germany is almost unbearable without protective covering. Shortly before Christmas, the investor Colin Au, who has meanwhile stepped down from management,. They expressed their wish that the tropical sun may never set in Brand.

This dance show dealing with colonisation in the Spreewald, which is not far from the old colonial metropolis of Berlin, is not without irony, for the German Empire not only colonised the Spreewald but in later times also parts of the South Seas. The group of islands in the South Pacific were the scene of a power struggle between the colonial powers of the North. The Germans imported Chinese and Melanesian labourers for the coconut plantations that they had cultivated since In , rebels supplied with weapons by the Americans resisted the German troops. Only a hurricane that destroyed the British, German and American warships prevented a war between the colonial powers.

The Berlin Act on Samoa brought an end to the many years of power struggle and created an independent kingdom under the joint administration of the three powers. In , the agreement was made to abolish the monarchy and to divide the island group between Germany and America. Great Britain disclaimed all rights in the Samoa agreement, but was compensated with other Pacific islands such as Tonga and parts of the Solomon Islands. In , the German Empire lost all its colonies and thus withdrew from the South Pacific. Today, more than 5, foreigners still live in Samoa, roughly corresponding with the proportion during its colonial past when there were around 24, Samoans, approx.

And this was done in a country that is hardly aware anymore of its colonial activities. NGBK Berlin, Brand and was regularly the scene of neo-Nazi marches. Brandenburg, as well as other regions in eastern Germany, is called a no-go area for people of colour. Statistics show that violent racism is widespread. The use of the Sorbian language is free.

The racist term is still being used. First: Historically, monuments are based on isolation. Second: Under the economised conditions of global cities, monuments become landmarks that with works by star architects rely on singularity, iconicity and isolation. I present these three configurations — monument, landmark and museum island — as a spatial figure and a figure of thought. Thus, their urban-planning and representative dimensions act as the expression of the relationship between the history of ideas, culture and tourism and this becomes important for the analysis of their public impact.

In three sections, Isolating Monuments, Singularising Landmarks and Attracting Museum Islands, I shall examine these projected connecting lines between monuments, landmarks and museum islands. Isolating Monuments. Monuments stand for themselves. They must stand for themselves in order to unfold their spatial and symbolic effect. It is the spatial-political obligation of monuments to bear witness. They must have an effect in the here and now, but they come from another time — that is the time when they were erected.

This temporal context has been stored in such a way that the distance in time remains readable and their effect becomes increasingly charged with this meaning over time. Monuments work with their commemorative values, to use a term coined by the Austrian art historian and proponent of the Viennese School of Art History, Alois Riegl. This multi-temporality of monuments influences their positioning.


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  • They occupy positions of commemoration. In order to maintain these positions, it is necessary to employ aesthetic strategies that prevent them from being dismantled. For this reason, monuments have to be at a safe distance from their viewers. To protrude out of their time, they must tower spatially, determine their context and at the same time detach themselves from it to avoid merging with it or submerging into it.

    In regard to urban planning, monuments must isolate themselves. The effective survival of monuments is based on their isolation from their surroundings. Monuments are outstanding. And this defines precisely the urban-planning and aesthetic strategy on which the conception and erection of monuments depends: they were turned into islands.

    Having been turned into islands, monuments place then rely on the strategic effect of distance. Singularising Landmarks. The people beholding the monument must accomplish this commemorative task for them. The space required by the beholders, in which the monuments unfold their effect in spatial proximity through physical stateliness and in temporal distance through the charging with symbolic meaning, demands an empty zone around them.

    In terms of urban development, the public is included in the empty zone surrounding the monuments. Monuments must articulate for those they stand for. This mission, embodied by their monumental presence, consists in having a symbolic and political effect on the present coming from the time in. If we follow the introduced strategies of creating the monumental and isolating it as spatial-political approaches to produce urban attractors in the recent and most recent past, we see that former monuments are now landmarks. This building was completed in in a problematic urban zone of the Spanish city of Bilbao that had great difficulties with the post-industrial transformation process and needed to invent itself as a tourist destination.

    The same even applies to newly completed museum buildings. These are obliged to conform to the same pattern of upgrading to the spectacular and the iconic. The repositioning of Rome as a metropolis for mass tourism pursued by the centre-. In this task of cultural repositioning as a contemporary metropolis it looked to landmark architecture.

    This landmark architecture has the effect of isolated iconic signs and relies on being readable not only by tourists but also by the local population. This shows how the transformation from the monumental to the landmark retains the spatial-political strategy of isolating, of turning into an island. In aesthetic terms, however, they are not signs of the specific local history and site-specific production of memory, as is the case with historical monuments, but instead they stand for globalised sign cultures that, isolated as icons from any contextual specificity, produce their own context and project it onto their respective locations.

    They do not react to their context but instead they negate it in order to create their own context. They themselves produce the media and actual spatial public sphere that they need for their effectiveness. As we have seen, that which isolates connects to iconicity: the monumental connects to the global. The new landmark monuments have an insular effect.

    The, still necessary, local specificity of landmark architecture, which makes up the necessary logic of distinction in the international competition of cities, shifts to the cultural production that takes place inside these new museums. On the one hand, what circulates are globalised exhibition productions that can be compared within the competition between cities; on the other, the relationship to the local now becomes a resource for exhibition ideas and programmes, something that emphasises the difference between cities as tourist destinations.

    Global cities — the concept of the global city was introduced into the debate by the urban sociologist Saskia Sassen in the s — are no longer just global economic centres meaning cities of financial markets and differentiated transnational business services but they are also cities that are able to persist in the international competition of cities as global cultural centres attractive to mass tourism. Landmark museum architecture is crucial to this end. Attracting Museum Islands.

    Actually existing islands rely on museums to reinvent themselves and develop a survival strategy aimed at tourism. Many smaller islands belonging to Japan are struggling with the phenomenon of superannuation and dwindling populations, because they no longer have any perspectives for economic survival. While Bilbao had struggled with the problems of post-industrialisation, seeking to solve them by means of star-architecture, at around the same time the Japanese island of Naoshima, which traditionally lived from fishing, invested in the strategy of reinventing itself as a museum island.

    In a later phase, hotel rooms were integrated into the museum: the museum hotel. The museum island established in this manner isolates itself towards the outside and towards the inside functions as a closed spatial panorama and combines cultural uses with the creation of a leisure-time space perceived as public.

    Tourist use and local use start to coincide. Local users use the site as a tourist location and tourists use it like an everyday space. We can draw the conclusion that the logic of such a space is already globally practiced and belongs to the standard cultural repertory of a class that has leisure time and money at its disposal. The transition zone in front of the museum quarter is the kind of urban intermediate land between road axis and the imperial Vienna of the imperial museums the Museums of Art History and Natural History as well as the Hofburg that, similar to the Heldenplatz, is a place for youth cultural and informal uses such as sitting, talking, lounging or skateboarding.

    The museum quarter as a museum island created itself as a context that has an effect on the city and beyond. Uniqueness is increased by a system of proliferation of what already exists in the world. What international brands have long realised — that their recognition effect turns people into communicating and consuming cosmopolitans — increasingly permeates the museum landscape.

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    Familiar names such as Louvre and Guggenheim turn sites into venues identified by museum brands. Distinction lies in comparability. The new must build upon tradition and immerse it in the light of new star-architecture. That is the logic of attraction. The time that has been invested in the museum in many other places can be freely set in order take place as an insular event of the touristic culture industry.

    The time of having become, which lends the museum its credibility, can adhere to the newly emerging museums as a guarantee of global compatibility with the system of the museum. It is the names of the architects that guarantee global-singularity. The names of these star-architects contribute to the production of a series — just like the museums they build. As regards urban planning monuments used to isolate themselves in their time in order to have a public effect and outlast their age. At the same time they were the representative sites of storage for what was considered worthy of remembrance.

    Monuments created the spatial context for their innate semantic and symbolic values. Monuments refer to the absent history that they commemorate. Landmarks free themselves from the obligation of referring to their context, they radicalise the refusal of a specific context, of a response to the given conditions, and understand themselves as the time storage of themselves. They do not refer to an absent outside, to the representation of hegemonic historical traditions, but to themselves.

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    Landmarks operate as self-referential signs, as iconic isolators that produce their own context. They stand for themselves and keep at a safe distance from the real surroundings. They are comparable to other icons at other places. They set themselves in relation to other star-architecture islands that together function as a system of attractors of globalised tourism.

    Landmarks singularise in order to make themselves specifically incomparable as regards their location yet comparable in a globalised way. Museum islands combine these two logics: that of the monumentally isolating, representative storage of time as a cultural memory machine with the singularising star-architecture of the iconic. This combination leads to the museum island that makes what is isolated walkable, habitable, consumable, experienceable. The museum island isolates, singularises and attracts. The dimensions of insularity are at once easy to grasp and impressive. Islands emphasise their condensed diversity in close quarters, which confirms itself as a resource of experience in its exhaustibility.

    Insularity is manageable. That catches the touristic spirit in times of scarce resources, prosperity regarding time and the sword of Damocles of the crisis. Escapism is insular. Biel und seine Umgebung by J Hardmeyer Book 7 editions published between and in German and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects. Alternative Names. Hardmeier-Jenny, Jakob.