PDF Natural Materials: Sources, Properties and Uses

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You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Lime sources, uses, comparision among different types, engineering applications. Oliur Rahman. What are the sources of limestone? Answer: Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic material in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate. Strictly speaking, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. The word "lime" originates with its earliest use as building mortar and has the sense of "sticking or adhering.

Lime stone found in lime stone hills 2. Lime stone boulders found in the beds of old rivers. Kankar found below ground 4. Shells of sea animals Question What are the properties and uses of lime? Answer: Properties of lime: Following are the properties of good quality lime, which makes it suitable for use as an engineering material. Easily workable.

Possesses good plasticity. Offers good resistance to moisture. Stiffens early. An excellent cement and adheres to masonry units perfectly. It is used as a matrix for concrete.

Natural Materials: Sources, Properties, and Uses

It is used as a binding material in mortars for stoneware. It is used for plastering walls, ceilings, etc. It is employed for white washing and as a base coat for distempers. It is used for knotting of timber work before painting. It is used in the manufacture of paints. It is used for stabilizing the soils. For centuries, the plant has been utilized as a part of customary practices in South America particularly in Peru. Due to its anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging activities, the plant has been used to treat rheumatic diseases and cancer [ ].

Decoctions prepared from the bark of U. The bark decoctions have strong ability to decrease the free radicals diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid [ ]. Leea indica belongs to the family Vitaceae and has been traditionally used as natural folk medicine in Malaysia. In the leaves of L. Among these, total phenolic compounds possess the antioxidant activity [ ]. Polyalthia cerasoides belongs to the family Annonaceae and is a medicinal plant used in Thai native medicine.

The roots of P. The extract has the highest phenolic compound and high reactive oxygen species-scavenging activity [ , ]. Marine ecosystem has been reported as a potential source of biodiversity and chemical activities. The organisms living in marine environment are gaining the attention of industries such as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics because of possessing various interesting and useful chemical compounds [ ]. Marine biotechnologists are trying to produce the tool for the utilization of marine biodiversity for the production of cheap source of pharmaceutical products and functional foods [ ].

Seaweeds and sponges are considered as the richest source of bioactive compounds having the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities [ ]. Seaweeds and sponges with their associated bacteria have been found to possess various health-promoting and disease prevention effects due to their phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and useful organic acids [ ].

These are supposed to be the most protective group of foods against environmental pollutants and radiation [ ]. Among various other useful compounds, the marine organisms also contain polyphenolic compounds that are responsible for antioxidant activity including flavonoids, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid, quercy, and phlorotannins [ ].

Nonanimal sulfated polysaccharides are reported to have antioxidant activities [ ], which can be obtained from marine algae and other marine organisms from the phaeophyta group [ ]. A large number of different species of algae and microalgae have been studied for the use of their bioactive contents as functional food components. Algae comprised of a huge and complex group of photosynthetic organisms with simple reproductive organs, which can be multicellular, known as macroalgae and unicellular called as microalgae.

Algae grow in extremes of environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and salinity, which results in the production of a large number of reactive oxygen species ROS. To cope with these ROS, algae produce various secondary metabolites with many antioxidant activities such as phycobilins, polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamins [ ]. People living in coastal areas use many types of seaweed, both as fresh and dry forms, as a natural source of food, and from the research, it is known that these seaweeds contain a large amount of proteins, minerals, and vitamins.

Although the composition of these seaweeds varies according to their species, geographical distribution, temperature, and seasonal variation, the overall nutritional value remains the same. Many compounds from marine algae possess anticancer activity, and recently, seaweeds have gained attention as a rich source of antioxidants [ ]. Many of the secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms reflect the presence of chloride and bromide ions in seawater.

Marine halogenated compounds assemble a large number of other useful compounds such as indoles, peptides, terpenes, phenols, acetogenins, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. This protective effect suggests the presence of antioxidant compounds that show their antioxidant activity as free radical scavengers, hydrogen-donating compounds, single oxygen quenchers, and metal ion chelators. Many biological compounds have previously isolated from some other marine organisms such as fish, crustaceans, and their byproducts [ ]. Seaweeds also create a suitable environment to a large number of bacteria that live on their surface having much more diversity of microorganisms as compared to other multicellular organisms [ ].

These associated microorganisms have a protective effect on the seaweeds from pathogen, and they produce a large number of bioactive compounds of biomedical importance [ ]. Exopolysaccharides produced by these bacterial species are used as an ingredient in food, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries and emulsification of crude oil, vegetables, mineral oils, and bioremediation agents in environment management systems [ ].

Fish protein hydrolysate FPH , which is prepared from various marine organisms such as mackerel, tuna, Alaska Pollock, and yellowfin sole, has also been reported to have antioxidant activity [ , , ]. Many types of peptides are obtained from fish muscle, bone, skin, and other tissues. All of these amino acids can scavenge-free radicals, but the most powerful scavenging activity attributes to those who can easily donate hydrogen atoms.

These amino acids are cystine and methionine, which have nucleophilic sulfur-containing side chains or tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, which have aromatic side chains. Peptide size and amino acid composition are important for the FPH because it determines its antioxidant nature [ ]. Algal antioxidants are also used in the cosmeceutical industries as antiaging agents [ ].

A carotenoid pigment known as astaxanthin, found in microalga Haematococcus pluvialis , is reported to have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant activities [ ]. An increasing interest has been observed from the past decade in exploring the natural ingredients to be used in the food and food products.

The researchers from all over the world are focusing on the alternate sources other than the synthetic one, which will be more safe and convenient as dietary component. Moreover, the synthetic antioxidants and preservatives in the food may lead to lipid peroxidation and deterioration of food flavor and quality. The use of natural herbs, spices, and plant ingredients is in practice from the ancient times and still practiced in the traditional food preparation as preservative, aroma, and flavor.

This chapter is an effort to overview the potentials of various natural sources having reasonable antioxidant potential. The literature reports compiled here will be beneficial to identify the significance of various natural sources based on their antioxidant capacity, active ingredients, and geographic availability. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Emad Shalaby. Edited by Hany El-Shemy. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books.

Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract Antioxidants are the defense system of the body against the damage of reactive oxygen species, which is normally produced during the various physiological processes in the body. Keywords antioxidants vegetables fruits plants herbs. Introduction The formations of oxygen reactive forms as a result of rigorous oxidative processes taking place in human organism are the potent precursors of systemic cells and tissues damage.

Natural antioxidants The nature is always a significant and rich source of countless ingredients that can be served as health-promoting agents. Types of antioxidants from fruits and vegetables Polyphenols, present in fruits and vegetables, is a group of several low- and high-molecular-weight compounds having antioxidant properties that prevent lipid oxidation [ 17 ].

Antioxidants from fruits and vegetables wastes Fruits and vegetable waste material is produced during their cultivation, industrial management, processing, preservation, and distribution [ 26 ]. Beet root Betalains [ ] 2. Apple Proanthocyanidins, flavonoids kaempferol, quercetin, and naringenin derivatives ; phenolic acids protocatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives ; hydroxychalcones phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives ; and isoprenoid glycosides vomifoliol derivatives Flavanols, flavonols, dihydrochalcones, and hydroxycinnamates Plum Proanthocyanidins, flavonoids kaempferol, quercetin, and naringenin derivatives ; phenolic acids protocatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives ; hydroxychalcones phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives ; and isoprenoid glycosides vomifoliol derivatives Table 1.

Some important fruits having antioxidant constituents. No Fruit Residue Antioxidant Reference 1. Banana Unripe green fruit and peel Phenols and flavonoids [ , ] 2. Mango Peel, kernel Gallic acid, ellagic acid, gallates, gallotannins, condensed tannins [ , ] 3. Water melon Peel, rinds Citrulline, lycopene, flavonoids, and phenols [ , ] 4.

Cucumber Peel Flavonoids and phenols [ 33 ] 5. Potato Peel Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and phenols [ , ] 6. Coffee Coffee ground and residue Polyphenols, tannins, and gallic acids [ , 38 ] 7. Apple Peel Epicatechin, catechins, anthocyanins, quercetin glycosides, chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamates, phloretin glycosides, and procyanidins [ ] 8. Grapes Skin and seeds Coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, neochlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, proanthocyanidins, quercetin 3-o-gluuronide, quercetin, and resveratrol [ , ] 9.

Guava Skin and seeds Catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, and kaempferol [ ] Pomegranate Peel and pericarp Gallic acid, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidindiglucoside, and delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside [ , ] Vegetables Cucumber Peel Phenols, flavonoids, pheophytin, phellandrene, caryophyllene [ 33 , ] Potato Peel Gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and phenols [ , , ] Tomato Skin and pomace Carotenoids [ ].

Table 2. Antioxidants from some fruits and vegetable wastes. Mushrooms as antioxidant In the nutrition world, mushrooms are delegated vegetables; however, they are not actually plants. Agaricus bisporus A. Armillaria mellea A. Auricularia auricula A. Boletus edulis B. Ganoderma lucidum Ganoderma lucidum is also commonly known as Lingzhi, a basidiomycete fungus, native to China and grows in mountain woods with humid and dim-light conditions, in the rotten bark or root of tree.

Grifola frondosa G. Hypsizigus marmoreus H. Lentinus edodes L. Pleurotus ostreatus Pleurotus ostreatus is the third most cultivated mushroom worldwide after A. Schizophyllum commune S. Medicinal plants and spices having antioxidants 2. Allium sativum A. Chalcedony after bone Petrified bone Usually red or brown, opaque, often shows cell structure.

Chalcedony after Crocidolite Tiger eye Yellow-brown; opaque; looks fibrous; red or dark brown is. Green mica Aventurine Green, massive, bright luster and color due to inclusions of small,. Rutile titanium oxide Rutilated quartz Colorless to smoky quartz, often as crystals, with needle-shaped. Needle stone yellow, red, or brown crystals of rutile r and omly scattered or in. Tourmaline usually Tourmalinated quartz Clear to smoky quartz, often crystals, with black or dark green.

Lepidochrocite Strawberry quartz Clear to light smoky quartz with red platelets scattered or aligned. Some metals occur in nature in an elemental state, and as such are minerals. Its malleability, ductility and flexibility make it useful in industry as well as in. Native gold. Twenty-two karat gold is 22 parts gold and 2 parts something else; 18 karat is. The lower the number, the less gold. The minerals most commonly found. If silver is subjected. This is the st and ard purity for silver bullion, as a commodity.

Britannia silver also is more pure than. It may be marked. The green or blue products of corrosion found. Most copper mined today is used in electrical wire and switches,. These metals are not. It rarely occurs in its native form, and. An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals, or of a metal and a non-metal. There are many different formulae for these. Some pewter contains no lead at all, and is mostly tin and copper. Bronze is. Iron and nickel occur together in iron meteorites, as alloys that are over.

In archeology, it refers only. The terms precious and semi-precious were developed. Stones have been altered with dyes and heat for thous and s of years,. The hardness of. Natural red spinel was most prized as a gem, and. These crystals are a. The name is in honor of Crown Prince Alex and er.

GSG: q=Natural materials : sources, properties, and uses / Jean Frances DeMouthe

This list is organized according to the chemical composition of mineral species. The simplest, the native elements, are first, followed by progressively more complex minerals. This list only includes those species that are used as gems or ornamental materials. Organic substances, such as amber and jet, are not included and will be addressed elsewhere. Colors: c: colorless; pk: pink; r: red; g: green; y: yellow; o: orange; p: purple; bl: black; b: blue; br: brown; m: metallic.

Crystal systems: isom: isometric; tetr: tetragonal; ortho: orthorhombic; hex: hexagonal; mono: monoclinic; tric: triclinic. Sphalerite blende, zinc blende ZnS br,y,o,r,g,bk,c 3. Spinel balas ruby, ruby spinel, MgAl 2O 4 All colors 3. Fluorapatite apatite Ca 5 PO 4 3F g,gr,b,y,c,br,p 3. Forsterite chrysolite, olivine, Mg2SiO4 gr,br,y 3. Alm and ine precious garnet, Fe3Al2 SiO4 3 r,br 4. Zircon jargoon, starlite, ZrSiO 4 br,r,o,y,gr,gy,b,c 4. Vesuvianite idocrase, californite, Ca 10 Mg,Fe 2Al 4 br,gr,bk,y 3.

Elbaite achroite, verdelite, Na Li,Al 3 All colors 3. Enstatite black star of India MgSiO 3 gy,bk,y,br 3. Synthetics Glass Rhinestone Composition variable All colors 2. Azurite, malachite, and rhodochrosite are brightly colored carbonate minerals. They are relatively soft and highly susceptible to staining and. Malachite sometimes occurs as botryoidal masses that,.

Rhodochosite may. Magnesite can usually be. This material resembles marble or fine limestone in texture and. Gypsum, however, is soluble in. Weathered specimens may appear gray, white, or.

Antioxidants from Natural Sources

Large forsterite crystals are rare, and. Only two of the garnets are commonly red, pyrope, and. The other species in this group occur in all colors except blue. Zircons come in many colors, and this. Topaz crystals can be quite large, and this mineral occurs in a variety of colors. Pink, yellow and orange crystals tend to be small, but very large gems, some.

Modern clear or pale blue topaz is often irradiated and heated to cause or darken. Any beryl that does not fall into any. Other minerals that have been mistaken for jade, or used as. These stones were faceted and used in imitation of diamonds. Clear glass was. Refractive index, hardness and density for these materials are for the most common or.

Properties of individual specimens may vary widely from these values. This stone was highly prized by some cultures,. There are three basic types: igneous, sedimentary,. Plutonic or intrusive rocks are those that form. Volcanic rocks cool quickly and tend to be fine grained or glassy in texture. Some igneous rocks are described by texture, and may have variable compositions. However, since pegmatites form in the slowestcooling.

Breccias can be volcanic or sedimentary, and porphyries can be. The result is obsidian. Granite is a term applied to a rock having a very specific chemical and mineral. Shale, claystone and mudstone form. If consolidated, it is s and stone. Modifiers may be added to refine the. For instance, if the s and is mostly made of. If mostly quartz, a. A well-sorted s and stone will contain only s and -sized grains, while a poorly.

Arenites are well-sorted s and stones having little or no clay in. Many clay minerals absorb water, changing shape and volume as a. For instance, a s and stone with a few rounded clasts could be called a pebbly. Sometimes, fluids and minerals in the. These strong materials resist decay and may not be easily crushed by covering.

Natural material

The earliest forms of life were simple single- and multi-celled organisms. The original hard parts and sometimes the sediment filling of the original. Animals and plants that are buried quickly in soft materials that do not crush. Over time, soft tissue, bone,. Wood and other plants preserved. In shades of brown, red, and yellow, iron oxide may color an entire deposit,. But aragonite is the least stable of the two. True alabaster is massive gypsum, and onyx is. The term chert is sometimes also. This material has many common and commercial.

Diatomite is mined and used as building material, in filters, as insulation,. Coal varies widely in composition. Lignite or brown. Anthracite or hard coal. Any of these. Jet and peat, which is compressed, partially. Scotl and. Objects made of this material date back at least to the Bronze age. It is also used in treating. Phyllite is very fine-grained foliated rock, between schist and slate in. Gneiss has thicker parallel layers and often larger grains. Slate is a. Its color varies with its composition,. Granite and other granitic rocks may be partially metamorphosed or saussuritized,. Meteoroids are small bits and pieces of rock left over from the original material.

Meteorites are meteoroids that survive their fiery flight and hit the ground. They are classified by their mineral composition and texture. Thous and s of. And each is designated. They attract a magnet, and are very dense. Stony meteorites,. Slicing, etching, and polishing an iron meteorite reveals a delicate interlocking. Natural poisons have long been used as.

If all specimens are treated with respect and. Any mineral. Some toxins, such as lead, mercury, and arsenic,. They are also poisonous and toxic as dust. Radioactive materials. If h and led and stored appropriately, hazards from radiation. There are three basic types of natural radiation: alpha, beta, and gamma. This is the same as the. They are very. Beta particles are loose electrons, and have a negative charge of 1.

Beta radiation. There should be posted safety rules that limit and specify what types. Anyone h and ling these materials should wash their h and s. Some of them also serve other purposes, such as. Oil and fat are generally the same thing. At room temperature, oil is. Oils are derived from plants and animals, while fats are. Some proteins may contain thous and s of amino acids. Many proteins. It combines with inorganic compounds in bones. Cartilage is collagen mixed in an amorphous gel. Dentine, which. There are, of course, thous and s of other organic and inorganic compounds. All organisms take in energy, excrete waste, reproduce, and.

Scientists have described and classified organisms in a number of different. Early descriptions were based solely on appearance and simple physical. Written Genus species, with only the genus capitalized, and. Table 3. Methanogens are anaerobes that cannot live in the presence of oxygen. As a source of energy, they used. These organisms live in oxygenfree. Extreme halophiles live in salt-rich environments,.

It is. Types fall into several. Type collections. Monocot seeds have one cotyledon or seed leaf, and dicots have. Monocots include lilies, iris, palms, and grasses. Dicots include most nonconiferous. Monocot flowers usually have petals and other. Stems support the plant, usually above the ground, and contain the various.

All about Mercury, the Liquid Metal - Element Series

Some stem structures. This layer protects the plant against disease and parasites, and. They are extremely diverse and are often the most useful diagnostic feature. Algae and fungi were originally clumped together with the plants, when the. Algae and. Modern plant resins are often substituted for true amber, and it is often difficult. Some trees and shrubs will produce copious amounts. These deposits are older than the European amber, and were formed by large. Amber is soft, has a low melting point, and a very low density. Most amber.

Most often it is yellow or brown, but specimens of red, blue,. Inclusions of insects, plant parts, dust, and other debris. Amber is very important to. Heating done too quickly or at. Amber fragments and cuttings are sometimes heated and compressed into. It is very soft and has a very low density. As it is coal, it is also. It is soft and easy to. Jet became. The popularity of black jewelry. Like coal, the decomposition of dead plant matter. Layers of dead plants, trees, fungus, and. Peat has been used as a building material, both structurally in walls, and as. Some of these materials are not species-specific, and are produced.

Wood is a general term that usually refers to the rigid stems and branches of. It is composed of cellulose,. Wood contains water inside its cells and in between cells. When wood is cut. Some species fall into a. In the same genus, the wood of. This wood has a higher natural sheen than ebony, and is the preferred. A tree is cut down and the bark removed.

The body of. Sometimes only a part of a. This is a long and labor-intensive process,. Before use, the splints are cleaned and scraped to remove the porous, soft layers. Once dried and coiled, splints can last for years before use. Wood splints tend to be flat or flat on one side and slightly convex on the. They are used to make mats, baskets, and furniture, usually in combination.

Bamboo is often used in the same ways that wood is, for furniture and as a. Trees used for this include the. Bark cloth is used for making clothing,.


  1. Types Of Materials.
  2. Contrasting student and scientific views.
  3. chapter and author info.
  4. Properties of natural and processed materials!

Bark of birch and other trees has been used to make canoes and shallowdraft. Since cork is light-weight, porous, and. Cork floats, and has been used to support fishing. Early life-jackets or belts were composed all. Cassia C. Cinnamon and other similar fragrant bark powders have been used medicinally. This is just one of the many medicinal compounds. Since that time, other cultures used plant. Papermaking spread throughout Asia and the. It took three hundred sheep skins to make. Many of these. Plant fibers have been used for thous and s of years to make cordage, fabric,.

Other components present may include lignin,. Cordage and fabric are made from natural plant fibers that come from different. When dried, these tubes are flat and naturally. The fibers are from 0. Afterwards, the. These include calico, canvas, batiste,. Linoleum followed, as an inexpensive flexible waterresistant. Flax has been used to make thread and fabric since Neolithic times.

The bast. Dew retting involves laying out the plants in a damp field and waiting for nature,. This can take weeks or months,. Most of these are defined only by the type of weave and the fineness. The word linen is usually applied. It is an ingredient in linoleum, where it is coated with. This material is most often used to make twine and rope, but not for maritime.

It is also used in brushes and as a. It is also used to make h and icrafts such as hats and household. Coir is highly resistant to. Coir fibers vary in thickness, and can be up to 10 inches in length. Due to its resistance to decay and its strength, coir is used to make.

Coir is also used to make wall and floor coverings, brooms,. Repeated soaking and drying can cause the plant fibers to separate. The only. Baskets and wicker-work are often found in historical and anthropological. Wicker is a term used to describe furniture. As these items have lost moisture. The fibers are used for a variety of h and icrafts and decorations, including. Raffia is often dyed and combined. It is used as thread, in making fishing nets, and to wrap. Since the leaf fibers are somewhat short, they are separated.

The finest thread is used in making Pina. It is also used to make household linens, h and kerchiefs, and. Coarser Pina fibers are used mostly for cordage and ,. It consists largely of the dry stalk or stem, and. In construction, it is used to make thatched roofs,. The combination. A mixture of mud or clay and straw is called cob, and the. Traditionally these are made of the last. This art is practiced. Saplings, offshoots, vines, and flexible.

Some vines, such as honeysuckle, wisteria, and rattan vine. This unusual plant looks like a vine, and may reach lengths of several hundred. Historically, it has been used to construct. In some cases it grows to the height of trees and may have a. Plant materials were the earliest materials used as brushes and brooms, and. Wreaths often consist of a base, woven out of vine or thin branches, and other. These may include flowers, grass, seeds, pods, cones, fruit, stems, leaves, and. This latter type of structure includes cattails and thistles, in which. The seed down or fluff.

A poultice made with the seeds has. The roots are edible,. Besides cattails, a few plants have been effectively used as torches and fuel. The rushlight or rush c and le is made from rushes common. The stems are collected, and soaked in water to facilitate the removal. The inner bark and the pith are left intact, and the.

The resulting reed c and les are several feet long and. Gourds have been. In the making of snuff bottles and other small items, gourds and other. Luffa is a genus of tropical and subtropical gourds. Several species of these. The finished product resembles a marine sponge, and. Rubber is the. This fluid is viscous and unstable, its properties changing quickly with. Gutta-percha is technically a product of Asia,. It is also resistant to heat and.

These included household and decorative objects, apparel, personal. The name. This viscous. The thread was woven into waterproof. Europe worked hard to create products that had the same elastic and waterresistant. Plant resins and distillates from a wide variety of plants have been used as. The purpose of these activities. Turpentine has medicinal uses, both topical, as for lice, and internal, to. It is a solvent and a common ingredient in paint and varnish.

Athletes also use rosin to enhance the grip of h and s and. North Africa and the Mediterranean. Mastic is used as a flavoring in liquor,. Small objects and jewelry were created from it, but. Most cinnabarware. Often identified as gutta percha or hard rubber, these composition. Most of these items were black,. The resultant. It could be molded under pressure,. Most early celluloid was used to.

Celluloid combines synthetic and natural materials. Its successor, Bakelite,. Later forms of bakelite also included cellulose fiber and natural. Many types of plants can produce oil from seeds, fruit, leaves, roots, and. Pentadesma butyracea is called the tallow tree or the butter- and -tallow tree. This oil is very stable and resistant to oxidation. Its uses are mostly cosmetic,.

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It is also used as a lubricant,. There are many natural sources of wax, both animal and plant, and some. Natural waxes are complex. Vegetable waxes have a wide range of uses, including. C and elilla wax or cerote is a scaly coating on the stems and leaves of some. The waxy coating protects the. American palm trees, mostly in Brazil. The palm leaves are cut and dried in. This substance. Montan and ozocerite are two wax compounds found associated with fossilized. Plant and animal products have been combined into a wide variety of scented.

Incense is a substance that. Most natural scents are volatile and have a. This oil is very stable and lasts for a long time without oxidizing. It was originally. Most of its uses are cosmetic, in soap, shampoo, sun-tan lotions, and skin. Mixed with other compounds, it is useful in lubricants, c and les, polish. Both frankincense and myrrh were used as trade items, and their.

Both asphalt and tar have been used to seal or calk. In medicine, they have been used to seal. Tar is used to flavor c and y and as an ingredient. Lichens, algae, and fungus have also been used to produce. Table 4. Environmental and storage conditions that are ideal for a botanical specimen. Traditional botanical specimens are plants that have been pressed, dried, and.