e-book Bilan économique du Congo : 1908-1960 (French Edition)

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The reader is systematically taken through the first military attempts to stabilize the country after independence and the two distinguishing military campaigns of the decade - the United Nations military operations Operation des nations Unies au Congo, or ONUC to end the secesssion of the Katanga Province, and the Dragan Operations led by Belgian paratroopers, supported by the US Air Force, launched to end the insurgency in the east of the country- are chronicled in detail. Finally, the mercenary revolt - an event that tainted the reputation of the modern mercenary in Africa - is described.

Lesser known military events- Irish UN forces cut off from the outisde world by the Katangese gendarmes and mercenaries, and a combined military operation in which Belgian paratroopers were dropped from US Air Force C Hercules aircraft and supported by the mercenary ground force to achieve humanitarian ends- go far toward resolving the enigma surrounding post-independence Congo. The ambitions of Congolese political leaders, Cold War rivalry, Pan-Africanism, Belgium's continued economic interests in the country's mineral wealth, and the strategic perceptions of other southern African states all conspired to wrack Africa's second largest country with uprisings, rebellions and military interventions for almost a decade.

Congo Unravelled solves the intractable complexity of this violent period by dispassionately outlining the sequence of political and military events that took place in the troubled country. The reader is systematically taken through the first military attempts to stabilise the country after independence and the two distinguishing military campaigns of the decade; the United Nations military operations to end the secession of the Katanga Province, and the Dragon Operations led by Belgian paratroopers, supported by the US Air Force, launched to end the insurgency in the east of the country.

Finally, the mercenary revolt, an event that tainted the reputation of the modern mercenary in Africa, is described. Lesser known military events, such as the Irish UN forces cut off from the outside world by Katangese gendarmes and mercenaries, and a combined military operation in which Belgian paratroopers were dropped from US Air Force C Hercules aircraft and supported by a mercenary ground force to achieve humanitarian ends, go far toward resolving the enigma surrounding post-independence Congo.

H83 F Unknown. Bouvier, Paule. Quelle fut l'influence du groupe des jurisconsultes internationaux? Quels sont les acteurs oeuvrant sur le terrain? D42 B68 F Unknown. Dying to live : a Rwandan family's five-year flight across the Congo []. Pierre-Claver Ndacyayisenga was teaching history in Kigali, Rwanda, when he was forced to flee to the neighbouring Congo with his wife and three children. Thus began a harrowing five-year voyage of survival during which they travelled thousands of miles on foot from one refugee camp to another.

Lacking food and water, they were often robbed, sometimes raped, and constantly pursued and bombed by shadowy armed soldiers with sophisticated weapons and aerial surveillance information. This brilliant and touching book is the story of one family among the more than , refugees -- many of whom did not survive. For those wishing to understand the war in the Congo, this must-read will restore the humanity and the right to mourn for hundreds of thousands of Rwandans dispersed throughout the world. N32 A3 Unknown. Massacre de Lubumbashi : mai []. Koyagialo Ngbase te Gerengbo, Louis Alphonse.

Kabila, Louis-A. K69 Unknown. P67 Unknown. Sauver l'ami Rufagari! P74 Unknown. Epimi Guia, Lucien. Saint-Denis : Edilivre, c C6 E75 Available. Bride price []. Mathie, Ian. Summary Working and living in the forests of Zaire during the reign of President Mobuto Sese Seko, Ian Mathie found himself the foster father of an orphaned girl. When a powerful and feared man from another village demanded that he set a 'bride price' for the child, Ian was forced to rely on his wits and courage to find a way within the rich traditions of the area to set a fair price the man would refuse to pay.

Set in the brooding vastness of the tropical rain forest, it provides intimate insights into the lives of a little-known people and their complex relationship with their environment, the spirits and the outside world. M37 Unknown. O26 Available. Mabi Mulumba, author. M33 A3 Unknown. Kanobana, Emmanuel Kigesa, author.

Description Book — pgaes ; 24 cm. K36 A3 Unknown. Ma vie et mes luttes []. Gizenga, Antoine, Paris : Harmattan, c G59 A3 Unknown. R24 Unknown.

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R48 Available. The Independence Disaster - Sept 2. Focussing on the Congo, this book shows how the preservation of the existing economic and social order in the Congo was a key element in the decolonisation process and the fighting of the Cold War. It links the international aspects of British, Belgian, Angolan and Central African Federation involvement with the roles of the US and UN in order to understand how supplies to and profits from the Congo were producing growing African problems.

This large Central African country played a vital, if not fully understood role, in the Cold War and proved to be a fascinating example of complex African problems of decolonisation interacting with international forces, in ways that revealed a great deal about the problems inherent in colonialism and its end.

Languages of colonial conflict after 1900

This book will be of much interest to students of US foreign policy, the UN, Cold War history and international history in general. K37 Unknown. J Available. Summary Inspired by the elections in Congo, a group of film students track down members of the Leopards, Zaire's national soccer squad, the first team from sub-Saharan Africa to qualify for the World Cup. After a dismal first round performance -- the Leopards were outscored in three games -- the players returned home in disgrace and drifted into obscurity. The team's captain, however, has fared better and is running for political office in Kinshasa.

Deftly weaving past and present. Gender and decolonization in the Congo : the legacy of Patrice Lumumba []. Bouwer, Karen. L85 B68 Unknown. Description Book — 96 p. M85 B85 Unknown. Political assassination. Death : colonial style : the execution of Patrice Lumumba []. Description Video — 1 online resource 53 minutes Digital: video file. Summary Patrice Lumumba, the first Prime Minister of the newly independent Congo, was a hero to his fellow Africans but a communist threat to the West.

The West believed Lumumba was pro-Soviet and would open the door to communist control of this mineral rich region. Within months of becoming Prime Minister in , Lumumba was ousted in a military coup, inspired by the West. It was led by a turncoat colonel, Desire Mobutu who would be Congo's military dictator for the next thirty years.

None of the murderers, or the men behind them, has ever been indicted, but Lumumba's voice still echoes throughout Africa today. Description Video — 1 online resource 52 minutes Digital: video file. So the Secret Services funded a rebellion in the mineral-rich province of Katanga-and installed a puppet President, Moishe Tchombe, who's first act was to call back Belgian troops and fund an army of white mercenaries to fight the central government. Dag Hammarskjold, the Swedish Secretary General of the United Nations flew there to prove the United Nations could be a mediating, independent force in such conflicts.

Still in its infancy, the ideals of the UN untried, Dag Hammarskjold-the poet, philosopher, idealist-sent in UN troops to the quell the rebellion. For the first time in the UN's history, blue helmets were engaged in military action. But the UN's western delegates were infuriated by Hammarskjold's initiative, and on his way to a ceasefire conference, his plane would crash in the African bush in mysterious circumstances. Records of the Department of State relating to internal affairs Congo [microform] : political and governmental affairs, February Subject numeric file POL. United States.

U6 U55 In-library use. Souvenirs d'un prince Kuba du Congo []. Kwete Mwana, Georges, Paris : Harmattan, c K94 A3 Unknown. C45 Unknown. Efinda, Emilie, Paris : Harmattan, c E Unknown. Oga Ukelo, Jok. Description Book — 90 pages : illustrations, maps ; 22 cm. I8 O36 Unknown. Mumengi, Didier. M86 Unknown.

Le prix du destin []. N39 A3 Unknown. Bukassa Kadiata, Charles. B85 Unknown. Mvogo, Thomas Noah, Description Book — 48, [1] p. N Unknown. Achterblijven in Congo : een drama voor de Congolezen? Verlinden, Peter. Description Book — pages : illustrations ; 24 cm Summary Persoonlijke herinneringen van Congolezen aan de periode dat het land een Belgische kolonie was en aan de onafhankelijkheid in Kasongo-Numbi, Kashemukunda.

Paris : L'Harmattan, c K35 Unknown. Kambale Bahekwa, Esdras. Bongeli Yeikelo Ya Ato. Description Book — , [2] p. B58 Unknown. Mukanya Kaninda-Muana, Jean-Bruno. Paris [France] : Harmattan, c Description Book — v, p. C6 M85 Unknown. Mwamba Mputu, Baudouin.

Le Congo-Kinshasa (République démocratique du Congo)

Bayanda, c Description Book — p : ill. M89 Unknown. Violence politique au Congo-Kinshasa []. Kamba, Pierre. Mbuyamba Musungai, Symphorien, Paris : Harmattan, Description Book — 2 v. M V. Lumumba []. Mpisi, Jean, Paris : Harmattan, c Les jeunes Le sida Les forces occultes Les femmes Le football Le choc des cultures Amahoro Changa-Changa, rythmes en noirs et blancs Chercheurs d'avenir Regards sur l'Afrique Village du bout du monde Arts du spectacle Presse satirique africaine Gorki Rage Le sida en Afrique Bamako fotota!

Drogue Sango Nord-Sud Presse africaine francophone Fespaco 91 Sahel vert [Version 1] Sahel vert [Version 2] La musique s'en va-t-en guerre Chronique francophone Bouche, que veux-tu? France-Afrique, les paysans d'en face Les inforoutes Les castes Les vieux Les oeuvres d'art La recherche africaine L'architecture La musique africaine Tand'Africa The seven ages of music L'envol d'un masque Femmes aux yeux ouverts Terres africaines III Hochadel und Kolonialismus im Jahrhundert Early childhood care and education at the margins A companion to the anthropology of Africa Croisades en Afrique Bilal The geography of climate change adaptation in urban Africa Living in dependence Labor on the fringes of empire Les migrants, acteurs des changements politiques en Afrique?

Learning spaces in Africa Africa on the contemporary London stage Les routes de l'esclavage Entre africains African freedom Institutions and democracy in Africa Les nouvelles tendances du droit administratif en Afrique A handbook for gender-inclusive elections in Commonwealth Africa Hip-hop in Africa Entreprise moderne et culture africaine Dieu, les migrants et l'Afrique The Palgrave handbook of peacebuilding in Africa Afrique, les religions de l'extase Hitlers Griff nach Afrika Albinism in Africa Fictions of African dictatorship Le leadership en Afrique Les sources du droit des hydrocarbures en Afrique Droit du contentieux international africain Les canons du discours et la langue Re-penser l'administration publique en Afrique Nouvelles dynamiques familiales en Afrique Spirit-filled world La philosophie du langage d'Alexis Kagame Africa is music The kingdom of God has no borders The colonial epoch in Africa Nos chers espions en Afrique La honte au Sahel Ethnologie africaine The green vision of Denis Sassou N'Guesso facing a blind world in danger Understanding the city through its margins Nuances africaines Histoire de vie Shadows of empire in West Africa Colonies de peuplement Queer in Africa Gender and mobility in Africa Contemporary African social and political philosophy Forging African communities Africa now!

Middle classes in Africa Altsteinzeit Histoire et numismatique de l'Afrique du Nord Antique Colonial al-Andalus Y'en a marre! Encounters between Jesuits and Protestants in Africa African democratic citizenship education revisited Mon optimisme pour la jeunesse africaine Produire des films Toward a better world L'Afrique Profession, agent d'influence Le veuvage en Afrique Les entreprises internationales en Afrique Tracing language movement in Africa Bilateral development cooperation: Bilateral development cooperation.

Common history of Burundi and Rwanda since Urewe civilisation: History of Burundi and Rwanda - Burundi and Rwanda are two of the few countries in Africa to be a direct territorial continuation of a pre-colonial era African state - Urewe culture developed and spread in and around the Lake Victoria region of Africa during the African Iron Age. Economy of Cameroon: Economy of Cameroon - main industries include petroleum production and refining, aluminium production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair.

Mining industry of Cameroon: Mining industry of Cameroon - mineral resources include bauxite, cobalt, gold from lode deposits, granite, iron ore, nepheline syenite, nickel, and rutile - Iron mines in Cameroon - Mbalam mine since - Diamond mines in Cameroon - Mobilong diamond mine. Energy in Cameroon: Energy in Cameroon. Fossil fuels in Cameroon: Fossil fuels in Cameroon. Petroleum in Cameroon: Petroleum in Cameroon. Coffee production in Cameroon: Coffee production in Cameroon, dates to , during the German colonial era, remaining very important for the economy of Cameroon - National Cocoa and Coffee Board, an autonomous Cameroonian government establishment created in to oversee the sustainability, marketing, quality control, information-dissemination.

Palm oil production in Cameroon: Palm oil production in Cameroon. Sanaga River: Sanaga River forms a boundary between two tropical moist forest ecoregions. Transport in Cameroon: Transport in Cameroon. Rail transport in Cameroon: Rail transport in Cameroon. Water transport in Cameroon: Water transport in Cameroon - Waterways, seaports and harbors in Cameroon. Foreign trade of Cameroon: Foreign trade of Cameroon - exports of Cameroon have decreased at an annualized rate of Economic history of Cameroon and economic cycles: Economic history of Cameroon.

Since economic crisis of Cameroon: From the mids to the early s Cameroonian economic crisis was a downturn in the economy of Cameroon from the mids to the early s, resulting in rising prices in Cameroon, trade deficits, and loss of government revenue. Political parties in Cameroon: List of political parties in Cameroon, Cameroon is a one party dominant state with the Cameroon People's Democratic Movement in power.

Trade unions in Cameroon: Trade unions in Cameroon. Elections and politics in Cameroon: Elections in Cameroon. September Cameroonian parliamentary election: 30 September Cameroonian parliamentary election. January 3 January Amid an escalation of the language related crisis in which dozens of people have died, hundreds have been imprisoned and thousands have escaped across the border to Nigeria, the entire country could be destabilised ahead of elections in the autumn if the situation is not defused through dialogue, according to the International Crisis Group.

September 17 September After elections governing body published a list of 9 candidates including incumbent president Biya who is seeking to extend his 35 years in power, decision to organize the presidential election on 7 October announced by Biya, removing all doubts as to whether the violence-gripped nation would make it to the polls. Social movements and protests in Cameroon: Protests in Cameroon. February Cameroonian anti-government protests: February Cameroonian anti-government protests, following a strike by transport workers, who were opposing high fuel prices and poor working conditions, also caused by President Paul Biya's announcement that he wanted the constitution to be amended to remove term limits.

Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Cameroon: Cameroonian society. Human rights in Cameroon: Human rights in Cameroon. Regions, departments and communes of Cameroon: Subdivisions of Cameroon - 10 Regions of Cameroon - 55 Departments of Cameroon - Communes of Cameroon and alphabetical list. Municipalities of Cameroon: List of cities, towns, and villages in the country of Cameroon and 10 largest cities. Demographics of Cameroon: Demographics of Cameroon. Culture and languages of Cameroon: Culture of Cameroon. November 5 November Armed separatists reportedly kidnapped at least 79 students and three staff members from a Presbyterian school in the troubled English-speaking region of Cameroon - 7 November Dozens of pupils kidnapped from a Presbyterian boarding school in Cameroon three days ago have been released, according to school and church authorities, as the principal and a teacher are still missing amid a conflict raging in the English-speaking regions of the majority francophone central African country.

Women in Cameroon: Women in Cameroon. Education in Cameroon: Education in Cameroon. Schools in Cameroon: Schools in Cameroon. Universities and colleges in Cameroon: Universities and colleges in Cameroon - Universities in Cameroon. Health in Cameroon: Health in Cameroon. Media and freedom of the press in Cameroon: Media and freedom of the press in Cameroon. Newspapers in Cameroon: List of newspapers in Cameroon. Crime in Cameroon: Crime in Cameroon. January 3 January Cameroon bus attack when Boko Haram attacked a bus in northern Cameroon, killing at least 15 people.

November 7 November Dozens of pupils kidnapped from a Presbyterian boarding school in Cameroon three days ago have been released, according to school and church authorities, as the principal and a teacher are still missing. Corruption in Cameroon: Corruption in Cameroon. Human trafficking in Cameroon: Human trafficking in Cameroon. Law enforcement in Cameroon: Law enforcement in Cameroon. Foreign relations of Cameroon: Foreign relations of Cameroon. Treaties of Cameroon: Treaties of Cameroon. Multilateral relations of Cameroon: Multilateral relations of Cameroon.

Cameroon's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Cameroon among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions. Bilateral relations of Cameroon: Bilateral relations of Cameroon. Refugees in Cameroon: Refugees in Cameroon - between and , 92, refugees from the Central African Republic fled to Cameroon 'to escape rebel groups and bandits in the north of their country'.

December Cameroonian Territorial Assembly election: 23 December Cameroonian Territorial Assembly election, resulting in a victory for the pro-independence party Cameroonian Union, which won 30 of the 70 seats - Cameroonian Union. December British Cameroons parliamentary election: 30 December British Cameroons parliamentary election, resulting in a victory for the pro-independence Kamerun National Democratic Party, which won 24 of the 37 seats in the House of Assembly. Forests of Cameroon: Forests of Cameroon. Water in Cameroon: Water in Cameroon. Natural disasters in Cameroon: Natural disasters in Cameroon.

August Lake Monoun disaster: 15 August Lake Monoun disaster, when the lake exploded in a limnic eruption, which resulted in the release of a large amount of carbon dioxide that killed 37 people. August Lake Nyos disaster: 21 August Lake Nyos disaster, when a limnic eruption at Lake Nyos, in northwestern Cameroon, produced a large cloud of carbon dioxide, which descended onto nearby villages, killing 1, people and 3, livestock. Economy of the Central African Republic: Economy of the Central African Republic - main industries are gold and diamond mining, logging, brewing, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles - Companies of the Central African Republic by industry.

Mining industry of the Central African Republic - 25 June At least 37 people were killed when a gold mine collapsed at Ndassima in the middle of the Central African Republic. Agriculture in the Central African Republic: Agriculture in the Central African Republic - cultivation of foodcrops such as yams, cassava, peanuts, maize, sorghum, millet, sesame, and plantains.

February-April 5 February: CAR soldiers reportedly lynched a man accused of being a Seleka rebel, as violence continues to afflict the country - 9 February: Clashes in Bangui leave at least ten people dead - 10 March: Christian militias reportedly take bloody revenge on Muslims in CAR, also targeting children - 29 March: Eleven people including three children killed after a grenade exploded among mourners gathered for a funeral in a Christian district of Bangui - 4 April Chadian soldiers killed 30 civilians and seriously wounded more than in an indiscriminate attack on a market in Bangui, UN says - 28 April: Peacekeepers have escorted more than 1, Muslims out of Bangui.

October 9 October At least 12 killed in violent clashes in Bangui, marking the most significant violence since UN force took over peacekeeping last month - 10 October A Pakistani UN peacekeeper killed in an ambush in Bangui. Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Central African Republic: Central African society. Bangui: Bangui , the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic with an estimated population of , inhabitants in - Timeline of Bangui.

Education in the Central African Republic: Education in the Central African Republic - University of Bangui since the late s, expanding the focus of study on agriculture to include scientific research, law, economics, rural development and liberal arts. December African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic since 5 December - 5 December: The UN security council authorises French and African troops to use force to protect civilians amid reports of dozens killed in Bangui and as the world races to prevent a sectarian war.

August 1 August Three Russian journalists ambushed and killed Monday evening near the village of Sibut in the CAR were researching the actions of the Russian military firm Wagner with links to Putin, which has also been active in Syria and Ukraine, according to the 'Investigations Management Centre' , also saying Kirill Radchenko, Alexander Rastorguyev and Orkhan Dzhemal were traveling to the north of the country to talk to a UN representative there - 8 August Russian TV Dozhd's Vasily Polonsky says the three Russian journalists who were killed in the CAR managed to record videos of bases of the Russian Wagner mercenaries, adding that other journalists agree that it was not robbery or an attack by thieves and local criminals but a planned attack.

Since Lake Chad replenishment project: Lake Chad replenishment project, proposed major water diversion scheme that would involve damming the Ubangi River at Palambo in Central African Republic and channeling some of the water to Lake Chad through a navigable canal - Lake Chad Basin Commission including Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Algeria, the Central African Republic, Libya, and Sudan - concerned by shrinkage of the lake's area from 20, square kilometres in to 2, square kilometres in , the countries met in January to discuss the Lake Chad replenishment project.

Economy of Chad: Economy of Chad - main industries are oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron sodium carbonate , soap, cigarettes, construction materials. Mining industry of Chad: Mining industry of Chad. Fishing in Chad: Fishing in Chad - with the drought and diversion of the waters of some rivers, production declined in the s. Chadian military: Chadian military - Chadian ground forces - Military history of Chad. Wars involving Chad: Wars involving Chad. Taxation in Chad: Taxation in Chad.

Political parties and trade unions in Chad: List of political parties in Chad - Trade unions in Chad. Elections and politics in Chad: Elections in Chad. June Chadian constitutional referendum: 6 June Chadian constitutional referendum - the amendments to the constitution include the removal of two-term limit on the President, the replacement of the Senate with a Cultural, Economic and Social Council and giving the President powers to amend the constitution.

May Chadian presidential election: 3 May Chadian presidential election. February Chadian parliamentary election: 13 February Chadian parliamentary election. April Chadian presidential election: 25 April Chadian presidential election. April Chadian presidential and parliamentary election: 10 April Chadian presidential election - Chadian parliamentary election - 10 avril: 6.

November Chadian parliamentary election: November Chadian parliamentary election. Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Chad: Chadian society - Human rights in Chad. Meat, fish and cotton processing are the chief industries, and the city continues to serve as the center of economic activity in Chad. Sara people residing in southern Chad and Central African Republic and making up Culture and languages of Chad: Chadian culture - Languages of Chad. Religion and freedom of religion in Chad: Religion in Chad - according to the census Muslims make up Children, child labor and children in armed conflicts in Chad: Children and child labor in Chad.

Education in Chad: Education in Chad - in , Health and healthcare in Chad: Health and healthcare in Chad. Chadian media: Chadian media. Internet in Chad. Crime in Chad: Crime in Chad. Human trafficking in Chad: Human trafficking in Chad. Slavery in Chad: Slavery in Chad. Law and law enforcement in Chad: Chadian law - Law enforcement in Chad. Constitutional Council of Chad: Constitutional Council of Chad judges the constitutionality of legislation and treaties in Chad and consists of nine judges who are elected to 9-year terms.

Foreign relations of Chad: Foreign relations of Chad. Treaties of Chad: Treaties of Chad. Chadian membership of international organizations: Chadian membership of international organizations. Chadian relations with other African and Arab states: Chadian relations with other African and Arab states.


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Chad's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Chad among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions. Bilateral relations of Chad: Bilateral relations of Chad. Chad-France trade relations: Chad-France trade relations. Ecoregions in Chad: List of ecoregions in Chad - Elephant hunting in Chad - Zakouma elephant slaughter refers to a series of poaching massacres of African elephants in the vicinity of Zakouma National Park in southeastern Chad. Economy of the Comoros: Economy of the Comoros , main industies include fishing, tourism, perfume distillation.

Agriculture in the Comoros: Agriculture in the Comoros - as the economy of the Comoros is primarily agricultural, crops include manioc, coconuts, bananas, sweet potatoes, rice, corn, cloves, also sugarcane, sisal, peppers, spices, coffee, and various perfume plants such as ylang-ylang, abelmosk, lemon grass, jasmine, and citronella. Transport in the Comoros: Transport in the Comoros.

Tourism in the Comoros: Tourism in the Comoros. External trade of the Comoros: External trade of the Comoros. Poverty in the Comoros: 6 July 3 socioeconomic groups account for nearly two-thirds of national poverty in the Comoros - farmers' households Political parties in the Comoros: Political parties in the Comoros - List of political parties in the Comoros.

Elections and politics in the Comoros: Elections in the Comoros. December Comorian independence referendum: 22 December Comorian independence referendum resulting in a strong 'yes' vote, with July Comorian constitutional referendum: 30 July Comorian constitutional referendum concerning presidential term limits and the system of rotating power among the three main islands - 30 July Turnout was weak at several polling stations in the capital Moroni, after opposition leaders called for a boycott of the referendum that could change the constitution and allow Assoumani to rule beyond , his current term limit.

March Comorian presidential election: 24 March Comorian presidential election - Candidates of the Comorian presidential election - 25 March Opposition parties in Comoros say the forthcoming presidential elections could be marred with repression and vote rigging - 27 March Incumbent president Azali Assoumani was declared winner of the presidential election of Comoros, even as the opposition rejected the electoral outcome as fraudulent. Social movements and protests in the Comoros: Trade unions in the Comoros.

June 3 June Comoros opposition rallies against referendum - 25 June Authorities detain the leaders of three opposition parties during protest in Moroni on June Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Comoros: Comorian society. Grande Comore: Grande Comore , the largest island in the Comoros nation with a population of about , inhabitants in , mostly belonging to the Comorian ethnic group.

Moroni: Moroni , the largest city, federal capital and seat of the government of the Union of the Comoros. Women in the Comoros: Women in the Comoros. Education in the Comoros: Education in the Comoros. Health in the Comoros: Health in the Comoros. Media of the Comoros: Media of the Comoros. Crime in the Comoros: Crime in the Comoros.

Law enforcement in the Comoros: Law enforcement in the Comoros. Foreign relations of the Comoros: Foreign relations of the Comoros. Treaties of the Comoros: Treaties of the Comoros. Bilateral relations of the Comoros: Bilateral relations of the Comoros. Since French overseas department of Mayotte and dispute: Since French overseas department of Mayotte , consisting of a main island Maore, a smaller island Pamanzi, and several islets, the department status of Mayotte is recent and the region remains the poorest in France, nevertheless much more prosperous than the other countries of the Mozambique Channel, making it a major destination for illegal immigration.

Since April 16 April As the French government tried to deport immigrants from the Department of Mayotte to Comoros Island, the Comorian government blocked entry of the migrants into the country as Comoros is claiming sovereignty of Mayotte and protests have been rocking Moroni - 29 June Despite promises to resolve tensions, relations between France and the Comoros have only deteriorated in the past few months, as the French government expels around 20, undocumented migrants annually.

Landforms of the Comoros: Landforms of the Comoros. Comoros forests: Comoros forests. Water in the Comoros: Water in the Comoros. Environmental issues of the Comoros: Environmental issues of the Comoros include soil degradation and erosion resulting from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing, deforestation. April Cyclone Kenneth: April Cyclone Kenneth - 26 April Cyclone Kenneth swept through the island nation of Comoros, packed high winds, dumped heavy rains, leaving a trail of destruction and three people dead on Thursday.

Economy of the Republic of the Congo: Economy of the Republic of the Congo - main industries include petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes - List of companies based in the Republic of the Congo. French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the six 'Supermajor' oil companies in the world, covering the entire oil and gas chain from crude oil and natural gas exploration and production to power generation, transportation, refining, petroleum product marketing, and international crude oil and product trading - 'Eni' S.

Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome with operations in 79 countries, and currently the world's 11th largest industrial company with a market capitalization of 68 billion euros - 'SOCO International' plc international oil and gas exploration and production company, headquartered in London, with operations in Vietnam, Thailand, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of the Congo.

Politics of the Republic of the Congo: Politics of the Republic of the Congo - The Constitution of the Republic of the Congo states that the republic is a pluralistic, multi-party democracy, after a constitutional referendum the right to run for president is extended to three terms, while simultaneously reducing the presidential term from seven to five years and also reinstating the position of the Prime Minister and moving the country to a semi-presidential system.

Political parties and trade unions in the Republic of the Congo: Political parties in the Republic of the Congo - Trade unions in the Republic of the Congo. July Republic of the Congo presidential election: 12 July Republic of the Congo presidential election. July Republic of the Congo parliamentary election: 15 July Republic of the Congo parliamentary election. Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Republic of the Congo: Republic of the Congo society - Human rights in the Republic of the Congo.

March 8 March Gloria Bouesso in the port area of Pointe Noire is the only female of men, with the role to guide and give directions to drivers of these fleet of heavy trucks. Ecoregions in the Republic of the Congo: List of ecoregions in the Republic of the Congo - Congolian forests are a broad belt of lowland tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of the Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Biome , which extends across the basin of the Congo River and its tributaries in Central Africa - Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests - Protected areas of the Republic of the Congo.

Environmental issues in the Republic of the Congo: Environmental issues in the Republic of the Congo include the high level of air pollution from vehicle emissions, water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage, tap water not being potable, and deforestation. Economy of the D. Congo: Economy of the D. Congo - main industries are mining copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten , mineral processing, consumer products including textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods, beverages , metal products, lumber, cement, commercial ship repair.

Mining industry in the D. Congo - Uranium mining in the D. Foreign involvement in the mining industry of the D. Congo: Foreign involvement in the mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Canadian mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, tantalum coltan , niobium, tin, tungsten, petroleum. Mining companies of the D.

Child labour in the D. Congo: Child labour in the D. Congo to mine cobalt that ends up in smartphones, cars and computers sold across the world, by household brands including Apple, Microsoft and Vodafone, according to a joint investigation of rights groups. Agriculture in the D. Congo: Agriculture in the D. Congo - principal crops cassava, yams, plantains, rice, maize and principal cash crops coffee, rubber, palm oil, cocoa, tea.

Coffee production in the D. Congo: Coffee production in the D. Politics of the D. Congo: Politics of the D. R of Congo announced that much delayed elections to replace President Kabila would take place in December , but the opposition demanded the longtime leader step down sooner. April 26 April Opposition politicians and activists in the D. Congo have pledged to defy repression and step up their protests as the troubled country edges towards elections that have been promised by the president, Joseph Kabila, later this year.

Congo, when results of a presidential election are declared - 6 January DRC officials postpone presidential election results, expected to increase tensions after government cut internet access. March D. Social movements, protests and repression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Protests in the D. January Congolese protests: January Congolese protests led by students at the University of Kinshasa against proposed legislation that would allow the country's president Joseph Kabila to remain in power indefinitely until a national census was completed. January 23 January Congo steps up deadly crackdown as church joins anti-Kabila protests.

December 21 December Students and residents protest in Kinshasa following news that the 'Independent National Election Commission' has postponed holding of the presidential election to December 30 - 27 December DRC troops fire teargas and live rounds to quell protests about election delay as demonstrators in the eastern cities of Beni, Butembo and their surrounding areas, that are strongholds of opposition to the outgoing president Kabila, block roads and burn tyres over their exclusion from vote - 28 December Soldiers crackdown on Beni protests.

Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the D. Congo: Democratic Republic of the Congo society. Provinces, districts and territories of the D. Congo: 25 provinces of the D. Congo - Districts of the D. Congo - territories of the D. Cities in the D. Congo: List of cities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kinshasa: Kinshasa , the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo situated alongside the Congo River and today a megacity with an estimated population of more than 11 million, facing Brazzaville, the capital of the neighbouring Republic of the Congo - Timeline of Kinshasa - History of Kinshasa - Economy of Kinshasa.

Lubumbashi: Lubumbashi , in the southeastern part of Democratic Republic of the Congo and the mining capital of the D. Congo, acting as a hub for many of the country's biggest mining companies, and the second-largest city in the country with a population of around 1. Mbuji-Mayi: Mbuji-Mayi , located in Luba country on the Sankuru River, the capital city of Kasai-Oriental Province in the south-central region and the third largest city in the country - Mbuji-Mayi's area one of the richest sources of mineral wealth in the world.

Kisangani: Kisangani , the capital of Tshopo province, the third largest urbanized city in the country and the largest of the cities that lie in the tropical woodlands of the Congo - Timeline of Kisangani - Economy of Kisangani. Kananga: Kananga city, near the Lulua River a tributary of the Kasai River and the Ilebo-Lubumbashi railway, an important commercial and administrative centre and the capital city of the Lulua Province with an estimated population of 1,, inhabitants. Bukavu: Bukavu , a city in eastern DRC and the capital of the South Kivu province, lying at the extreme south-western edge of Lake Kivu, west of Cyangugu in Rwanda, and separated from it by the outlet of the Ruzizi River, with an estimated population of , inhabitants in - Timeline of Bukavu.

Goma: Goma , the capital of North Kivu province in the eastern D. February 17 February Unidentified gunmen killed eight people in three districts of Goma in eastern D. Demographics and ethnic groups in the D. Congo: Demographics of the D. Ethnic groups in the D. Congo: Ethnic groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Culture and languages of the D. Women in the D. Women's rights in the D. Congo: Women's rights in the D. Children, children's rights, child labour and soldiers in the D. Congo: Children in the D. Congo - Child soldiers in the D.

R Congo. January 19 January Children as young as seven are working in perilous conditions in the D. Education in the D. Health and healthcare in the D. Congo - Hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Panzi Hospital in Bukavu specialized in treating survivors of violence founded in Ebola outbreaks in the D. May 3 May Ebola death toll in Congo to pass 1, and women and children fare worst, World Health Organization warns, as efforts to contain outbreak are undermined by health centre attacks and local mistrust.

Sport in the D. Congo: Sport in the D. Football in the D. Congo - 12 May Fifteen people were killed and 21 others injured after trouble broke out at a football match in Kinshasa, during which police fired tear gas at fans. Media of the D. Congo: Media of the D. Congo - Freedom of speech and press in the D. Since 'Journaliste en danger': Since 'Journaliste en danger', an independent, non partisan non-profit organization on the initiative of a group of Congolese journalists for the defence and promotion of the press freedom in DR Congo.

November 21 November Media in the D. Congo operate against a backdrop of political power struggles and violent unrest, and 'freedom of information is constantly violated' according to Reporters Without Borders, but some publications carry opposition party views and there are hundreds of radio stations and scores of TV networks, most of them privately run as owners often have political connections. Newspapers in the D. Broadcasting in the D. Internet in the D. Congo: Internet in the D. Congo - Internet freedom in the D. December 30 December Internet and phone services cut in the D.

Congo ahead of anti-government protests, after activists have called for marches in major cities to demand that President Joseph Kabila commit to not changing the constitution to stand for a third term and release political prisoners. Human rights the D. Congo: Human rights the D. December 13 December Armed conflict and other violence have continued in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with government security forces and numerous non-state armed groups responsible for countless horrific abuses against civilians, including killings and rapes, largely with impunity, according to the 'Human Rights Watch Submission to the Universal Periodic Review of the Democratic Republic of Congo'.

Crime in the D. Congo: Crime in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Corruption in the D. Congo: Corruption in the D. Congo continues to exceed corruption in most states - Resource Extraction Monitoring. November 2 November The recent history of the Democratic Republic of Congo has been one of civil war and corruption, according to media country profile.

Violence in the D. Congo: Violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Sexual violence in the D. Human trafficking in the D. Congo: Human trafficking in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Terrorism in the the D. Congo: Terrorism in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Congo: terrorist incidents in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Massacres in the D. Congo: Massacres in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

‘Boom! goes the Congo’

July 6 July: Some Congolese soldiers have fled into Uganda, following clashes with rebels who have seized a border town - 8 July: 'M23 movement' takes Rutshuru and two other towns close to Ugandan border - 11 July: UN calls on Congo, Rwanda to 'defuse tensions' - 12 July: UN and government forces have bombarded rebel positions stationed around two villages in the eastern region of North-Kivu - 14 July: ICC issues warrants for DR Congo warlords. Congo has been suspended pending an investigation into claims that he sold weapons to rebel groups - 23 November: M23 rebels march on strategic eastern town of Bukavu planning to head to Kisangani and the capital Kinshasa and causing fear in other parts of the country - 23 November: The UN warns of a growing humanitarian crisis in the D.

January 1 January: The UN Security Council has imposed sanctions against leaders of the M23 rebel movement - 8 January: M23 rebels declare a unilateral ceasefire ahead of a second round of peace talks with the government. May 21 May: Two days of clashes between Congo's army and rebel fighters near the eastern city of Goma have killed at least 19 people.

August 3 August: Protesters angry that a new UN security zone will not take in the regions under the control of the rebel M23 movement have hurled rocks at a peacekeeper convoy there - 25 August: Goma residents protest after deadly attack on civilians - 28 August: A UN peacekeeper from Tanzania killed and three others were wounded in an operation with the Congolese army to drive back M23 rebels from the city of Goma - 31 August: M23 rebels retreat from eastern frontline but Rwanda, accused of supporting the M23 group, reportedly moved troops towards the border.

May 9 May An attack on the town of Butembo by Mai Mai fighters killing eight people in Ebola-hit area has prompted fears of a return to large scale violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. December 13 December Twelve members of a Congolese militia group that christened itself Djeshi ya Yesu The Army of Jesus , including a member of parliament, have been convicted of raping 37 toddlers and young girls in eastern DRC between and , in a trial held in a mobile military court in Kavumu so that locals could attend and see justice done, and in a case that lawmakers hope will represent a milestone in the fight against impunity.

Since United Nations operation in the Congo since